Mind

To Contents
The Mind, Awareness FocusImaginationAs-if

(Models — Emotions — Cognition — Conscious — Nonconscious — Needs — Harnessing the Un/Subconscious)

For updating — ref909 — The Neural Basis of the Dynamic Unconscious

A great deal of complex cognitive processing occurs at the unconscious level and affects how humans behave, think, and feel. Scientists are only now beginning to understand how this occurs on the neural level. Understanding the neural basis of consciousness requires an account of the neural mechanisms that underlie both conscious and unconscious thought, and their dynamic interaction.

For example, how do conscious impulses, thoughts, or desires become unconscious (e.g., repression) or, conversely, how do unconscious impulses, desires, or motives become conscious (e.g., Freudian slips)? Research taking advantage of advances in technologies, like functional magnetic resonance imaging, has led to a revival and re-conceptualization of some of the key concepts of psychoanalytic theory, but steps toward understanding their neural basis have only just commenced.

According to psychoanalytic theory, unconscious dynamic processes defensively remove anxiety-provoking thoughts and impulses from consciousness in response to one’s conflicting attitudes. The processes that keep unwanted thoughts from entering consciousness include repression, suppression, and dissociation.

• Introduction & Models of the Mind
• Modelling the Mind
• Emotions
• Cognitions
• Cognitive/Emotional Interactions
• Competences — Habits
• Memory
• Organisation of Memory
• Working with the Mind
• What can go wrong

To Mind contents

INTRODUCTION

The Mind is crucial to our existence — Awareness is the overwhelming aspect of our existence.

Awareness an combination of human genetics, our ability to learn through our senses, our overall experiences to date — in our complex social conditions

That is — our accumulated memories — habits, competences, information and insights — along with the ability to utilise these Nonconscious resources.

What you need to take onboard is — our Nonconscious knows more about you than you know about yourself, and it continues to review these insights.

Education should be about training the Mind — for example
• Sports people must learn to deal with the psychological aspects of their involvement
• Mindful tells us “Don’t try too hard”

There exists various theories and observations about the Mind. These are the products of various minds who have felt the compulsion to understand what humans are all about. They are all of interest, and hopefully contain some partial validity, even if not fully illuminating.

These are now listed with brief descriptions before starting

Freud envisaged the following —


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Where Freud’s personality theory (1923) saw the psyche structured into three parts, the Id, Ego and Superego, all developing at different stages in our lives — ref907

From — ref739d States of consciousness
We experience a continuous, ongoing visual world. Consciousness may be formed in a very similar process, with continuous processing guided by little bursts of information formed from within, integrated with those received from the senses.
Consciousness is arguably one of the best things about being human. We not only get to exist as living creatures: we get to know we exist, think about it, and savour it.


ccp159 — A model of the Conscious/Nonconscious Mind

A useful, though disputed model of the Brain is as in — ref890
Here, there are 3 main parts to our brain with different levels of Mind the —
• Primitive, reptilian or lower brain (UnConscious mind),
• Limbic system or mid-brain (SubConscious — Fits in with Limbic being emotional brain
• Neo-cortex or newer brain (Conscious mind).

Those parts of the Brain that receive information directly from the Senses are able to respond quickly.

From — ref795 — NLP Understanding your mind conscious and unconscious processing

Your unconscious mind expresses itself through feelings, habits, and sensations in your body i.e. pain, light-headedness, muscle tension.

So-called emotions such as happiness, sadness etc are the conscious mind labels assigned to unconscious processes such as electrical chemical reactions in the nervous system. The emotion is felt in the body as sensations; we nominalise the experience in the body and talk about emotions, often losing touch with the true feeling.

The unconscious mind has within it enormous potential for change and is able to learn positive new responses easily as well. It’s a question of stimulating the unconscious mind through effective communication with it to create change.

From — ref739d States of consciousness
We experience a continuous, ongoing visual world. Consciousness may be formed in a very similar process, with continuous processing guided by little bursts of information formed from within, integrated with those received from the senses.

Consciousness is arguably one of the best things about being human. We not only get to exist as living creatures: we get to know we exist, think about it, and savour it.

From — ref739d States of consciousness
We experience a continuous, ongoing visual world. Consciousness may be formed in a very similar process, with continuous processing guided by little bursts of information formed from within, integrated with those received from the senses.

Consciousness is arguably one of the best things about being human. We not only get to exist as living creatures: we get to know we exist, think about it, and savour it.

From — ref876 — Quantum Consciousness, an overview
The general assumption in modern science and philosophy – the ‘standard model’ – is that consciousness emerges from complex computation among brain neurons, computation whose currency is seen as neuronal firings (‘spikes’) and synaptic transmissions, equated with binary ‘bits’ in digital computing.

Consciousness is presumed to ‘emerge’ from complex neuronal computation, and to have arisen during biological evolution as an adaptation of living systems. On the other hand, spiritual and contemplative traditions, and some scientists and philosophers consider consciousness to be intrinsic, ‘woven into the fabric of the universe’.

This research involves a theory of consciousness which can bridge these two approaches, a theory developed over the past 20 years with eminent British physicist Sir Roger Penrose.

Called “Orchestrated Objective Reduction”, it suggests consciousness arises from quantum vibrations in protein polymers called microtubules inside the brain’s neurons – vibrations that interfere, ‘collapse’ and resonate across scale, control neuronal firings, generate consciousness, and connect ultimately to ‘deeper order’ ripples in space-time geometry — Consciousness is more like music than computation.

From — ref738e — Unconscious & pre-conscious mind
Whils Freud believed that primitive urges remained unconscious to protect individuals from experiencing anxiety, the modern view of the adaptive unconscious is that most information processing resides outside of consciousness for reasons of efficiency, rather than repression (Wilson, 2004).

Universal grammar is an unconscious language processor that lets us decide whether a sentence is correctly formed. Separate to this module is our ability to recognize faces quickly and efficiently, thus illustrating how unconscious modules operate independently — (Chomsky, 1972).

So, how do we make best use of our personal resources — Recall that habits — regularly used competences — become available as required without Conscious thought and effort!

From ref873 — The Conscious, Subconscious, and Unconscious Mind – How Does It All Work?
What distinguishes the conscious mind from the subconscious is awareness. However the emphasis is on Imagination and Focus.
2 Your subconscious is the work desk of your mind — Controlling and directing it is the key to personal change.
3 The unconscious mind is very similar to the subconscious mind in that it also deals with memories. But there is a difference between the two — it is the source of all these programs that your Subconscious uses
From — ref738b — consciousness could simply be product of our unconscious brain — What does it mean for us?
But what was actually being measured in this study was the organisation of the neural energy flow (EEG measures differences of electrical energy). Therefore, the complexity of the energy flow in the brain tells us about the level of consciousness a person has.
href=”https://www.diffen.com/difference/Subconscious_vs_Unconscious_mind839″ target=”_blank” rel=”noopener”>ref839

From — ref872 — 3 Tips for Controlling the Subconscious Mind —

It is important to understand the difference between an objective thought and a subjective thought.

An Objective thought is a result of general thinking, such as reasoning, the process of recollection or study and there is no feeling involved, therefore it cannot enter or control the subconscious mind.

A Subjective thought, on the other hand, can enter the subconscious mind as long as it is impressed often and with sufficient feeling, which we often do quite easily when worrying over something. Affirmations infused with emotion would be one way of successfully tapping into the power of the subconscious mind if repeated on a daily basis with passion and vigor.

From — ref855 — Analog & Quantum Computers
The number of quantum states becomes so large that classical mechanics becomes exact. When analog systems work classically, the quantized-energy argument fails.

From — ref856 — brains-as-analog-computers
Here’s a good question: Is the brain a computer?

Analog computers have fallen out of favour, and as a consequence, we don’t think about them when we think about computation. And while the advantages of digital computation are clear for practical purposes, analog computation turns out to be an excellent way to think of computation more generally.

When we look closely at how digital computation really works, it has almost nothing in common with how brains work. If digital computation is the only concept of computation you have, you might think we should abandon the idea that brains literally compute.
But that would be much too hasty: we just need a broader notion of computation, and it turns out that looking to analogue computation helps us see how brains could be computers after all.

From — ref854 — analog-or-digital (and artificial intelligence)

Analog is a physical impression of the original. There is a direct link between the live performer and the recording.

Digital is an abstraction. The link between the live performer and the recording has been severed. The connection is lost.

There is also a growing body of experimental evidence suggesting that the way people actually think looks imagistic rather than abstract.
However —
From — ref858 — Freeman Dyson
Language is digital — and lots of insights & imaginings

From Albert Einstein — “I’m enough of an artist to draw freely on my imagination, which I think is more important than knowledge. Knowledge is limited. Imagination encircles the world.” — ref793 — Science of Imagination.
xmind
To Mind contents
MODELLING THE MIND

The “Mind” is a model of our limited awareness, our inherent capabilities and our mental resources in terms of what we have learned and experienced — and then utilise to enable us to be dexterous, thoughtful, compassionate, etc. The practical challenge is to make better use of our Mind.

It deals with maintaining on-going competences — Awareness, vocabulary, numbers, movement, relationships, sense of purpose, personal skills,

The Mind has been simply modelled as — Conscious and Nonconscious — Freud envisaged the following —


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Another model — ref890
There are 3 main parts to our brain with different levels of mind the:
• Primitive, reptilian or lower brain (unconscious mind),
• Limbic system or mid-brain (subconscious — Fits in with Limbic being emotional brain
• Neo-cortex or newer brain (conscious mind).

The Mind is a combination of receiving, storing and recalling data for use as required. It is divided into the Conscious and the Nonconscious — with variants called the Preconconscious, the Subconscious and the Unconscious.

lets now consider a typical model of the Conscious/Nonnconscious Mind — Let’s consider how they evolved to operate and communicate.


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From — ccp885 — how-consciousness-evolved (In the context of the Nonconscious)

The Attention Schema Theory (AST) proposes that Consciousness arises as a solution to one of the most fundamental problems facing the nervous system — Too much information constantly flows in for it to be fully processed.

The brain evolved increasingly sophisticated mechanisms for deeply processing a few select signals at the expense of others, and in the AST, consciousness is the ultimate result of that evolutionary sequence — Neurons act like candidates in an election, each one shouting and trying to suppress its fellows. At any moment only a few neurons win that intense competition, their signals rising up above the noise and impacting behavior. This process is called selective signal enhancement, and without it, a nervous system can do almost nothing.

The Cortex has developed something called covert attention. You don’t need to look directly at something to covertly attend to it. Even if you’ve turned your back on an object, your Cortex can still focus its processing resources on it. Your Cortex can shift covert attention from, say, the text in front of you — to a nearby person, to the sounds in your backyard, to a thought or a memory ….

Covert attention is the virtual movement of deep processing from one item to another.

Unlike earler developments that model concrete objects like the eyes and the head, the Cortex has to model something much more abstract. According to the AST, it does so by constructing an attention schema — a constantly updated set of information that describes what covert attention is doing moment-by-moment and what its consequences are.

It is implied that the covert attention is the what the Nonconscious is seeking to draw attention to from its complex store and on-going monitoring of Needs, Habits, Competences, etc.

The Buddhist version of the “Stream of Consciousness” looks like a similar explanation — ref886.


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The names of the Moods and Emotions in the stream are Hell, Hunger (Craving), Instinct, Anger, Tranquility, Rapture, Learning, and Realisation, and Helping.

(Comments by Alain — “Preconscious” is used by some researchers to describe “Close to Consciousness”. Can we visualise the current Buddhist Stream of Consciosness as one of a host of potential Streams, whose “suggestions” reflect the current musing of our Consciousness.

We might consider that Emotional responses and the Stream of Consciousness are suppressed if we suffer from Depression, GAD, Addiction, etc.

From — ref897 — processing-information-with-nonconscious-mind

Our conscious thinking, perceiving, and learning accounts for only a small fraction of our total mental activity, with the rest being entirely nonconscious

Our conscious minds work much more slowly than our nonconscious minds, and are overall less adept at processing information, less efficient at the task. The nonconscious mind therefore can be said to be more intelligent than the conscious mind.

Because the nonconscious mind is responsible for the bulk of our mental processing, it can also be said to be responsible for the development of a large part of our personality, tastes, talents, and so on. It determines, in essence, how we function as beings.

The nonconscious mind is thought to be composed only of what it has absorbed from the external environment, and to be responsible for the following processes —
1. Nonconscious learning and the development of personality traits
2. The nonconscious influence that our nonconscious learning has on our judgments, decisions, and emotions (both feelings and reactions); and
3. The various organizations and reorganizations that occur spontaneously in nonconscious knowledge systems.

As point three suggests, our nonconscious knowledge systems are far from rigid; they constantly change, and we change with them, leading to what we interpret as the growth and alteration of the personality.

Generally, these changes can be seen as a computer re-ordering itself to become more and more efficient in its processing of the external environment, but in some circumstances, the same processes may lead to the state of maladaptation that we refer to as mental illness.

To Mind contents
EMOTIONS


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When it comes to coping we can respond in a Mindful way, or React in a way that is dominated by, say, a bad mood, likely to be exacerbated by passing annoyances and/or misunderstandings.

Rick Hanson describes this Reactive Mode in his book “JHardwiring Happiness” as follow — “After waking up, you spend a few minutes in bed pessimistically anticipating the day ahead and thinking about how boring work will be.

Today, the traffic really gets under your skin, and when a car cuts you off, you get angry and honk your horn. You’re still rankled by the incident when you start work, and to make matters worse, you have an unbelievable number of rote tasks to get through.

By the time you’re driving home, you feel fried and don’t want to do a single extra thing. Your partner calls to ask you to stop at the store. You feel put upon but don’t say anything and go to the store.

Then you spend much of the evening quietly seething that you do all the work around the house. Your favourite show is on, but it’s hard to enjoy watching it, you feel so tired and irritated

The Harvard Medical School has observed that not a second goes by that our ancient dog brains aren’t conferring with our modern cortexes to influence their choices — ref723

From — ref653
Emotions are more physiological than psychological — Any significant disruption of familiar sensory patterns triggers a biological response, commonly called emotion.

From — ref887 — Physiological Changes Associated with Emotion

The most obvious signs of emotional arousal involve changes in the activity of the Autonomic (visceral motor) system. Thus, increases or decreases in heart rate, cutaneous blood flow (blushing or turning pale), piloerection, sweating, and gastrointestinal motility can all accompany various emotions.

These responses are brought about by changes in activity in the Sympathetic, Parasympathetic, and Enteric components of the Autonomic System system, which govern smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands throughout the body.

The responses of the autonomic nervous system are quite specific, with different patterns of activation characterizing different situations and their associated emotional states — Indeed, emotion-specific expressions produced voluntarily can elicit distinct patterns of autonomic activity.

Autonomic responses are strongest when the facial expressions are judged to most closely resemble actual emotional expression and are often accompanied by the subjective experience of that emotion!

One interpretation of these findings is that when voluntary facial expressions are produced, signals in the brain engage not only the motor cortex but also some of the circuits that produce emotional states. Perhaps this relationship helps explain how good actors can be so convincing.

Nevertheless, we are quite adept at recognizing the difference between a contrived facial expression and the spontaneous smile that accompanies a pleasant emotional state

This evidence, along with many other observations, indicates that one source of emotion is sensory drive from muscles and internal organs. This input forms the sensory limb of reflex circuitry that allows rapid physiological changes in response to altered conditions.

However, physiological responses can also be elicited by complex and idiosyncratic stimuli mediated by the Forebrain. For example, a suspenseful episode in a novel or film, stirring patriotic or religious music, or dishonest accusations can all lead to autonomic activation and strongly felt emotions.

(Comment by Alain — This is a description of what is presumably held in the Nonconscious, and would include any learned responses to potential harm, and intervention by personal Emotional Intelligence)

The neural activity evoked by such complex stimuli is relayed from the Forebrain to autonomic and somatic motor nuclei via the hypothalamus and brainstem reticular formation, the major structures that coordinate the expression of emotional behavior (see next section).

In summary, emotion and motor behavior are inextricably linked. As William James put it more than a century ago — “What kind of an emotion of fear would be left if the feeling neither of quickened heart-beats nor of shallow breathing, neither of trembling lips nor of weakened limbs, neither of goose-flesh nor of visceral stirrings, were present, it is quite impossible for me to think … I say that for us emotion dissociated from all bodily feeling is inconceivable” — William James, 1893.An Emotion is initially dealt with by the Emotional (Limbic) Brain — This enables us to respond immediately to indications of danger.

From — ref 653

Whether triggered from outwith the body or within, emotions produce major changes all through the body. most notably in muscle-tone, energy level, tone of voice, and facial expressions. They signal organs and muscle groups, accelerate or decelerate cardiovascular rates, and mute or exaggerate messages of pain, deprivation, and pleasure.

People around you will be focused on the situation and their own emotional responses to it — they are unlikely to give the same meaning to the feelings you’re trying to explore or express — ref249 — meaning-and-emotions

The components of Emotion are:
• Arousal (energy)
• Motivation
• Feelings

Arousal is the energy that powers emotion. Even without emotional stimulation, arousal ebbs and flows in roughly 90-minute cycles.

From — ref887 — Physiological Changes Associated with Emotion

Motivation
Again from — ref 653

Emotions send action signals to the muscles and organs of the body to prepare us for to do something. Each emotion carries general motivation for behavior selected from the broad categories of approach, avoid, or attack.

If the change stimulating the emotion seems promising, the usual response is interest or enjoyment, which motivate various approach behaviors to “sense more, learn more, get more.”

If the change seems dangerous, anger, fear, or disgust emerges with motivation to attack (devalue) or avoid.

Motivation is the most important component of emotions. We cannot understand ourselves or other people without understanding motivation. We almost always fail to act in our best interests when we ignore motivation.

Types of Motivation. Below are examples of the primary motivations that foster growth and empowerment:
• Interest – find out more, get beneath the surface
• Passion – indulge, plunge
• Conviction – work to keep the status quo or change it
• Compassion – sympathize with the pain and hardship of self and other
• Enjoyment – appreciate, relax with
• Anxiety – learn more, increase ability to cope
• Shame – hide, cover-up.
• Distress – get back what was lost or compensate for its loss; consolidate gains
• Guilt – reconnect, compensate.

Feelings

The subjective experience of emotions — what they feel like — dominates our conceptions about them. However, this slowest component of emotion processing is only part of the emotional terrain. Trying to understand or change emotions through focus on how they feel is like trying to understand and change intestinal gas through focus on discomfort. Pop-psychologists make that error when they insist on “exploring and expressing” feelings.

The fact is, we cannot explore and express feelings without changing them. Mental focus amplifies and magnifies, creating the psychological equivalent to the observer effect in physics. Moreover, the brain loads into implicit memory other times you’ve experienced the feeling you’re trying to explore or express. This gives historical meaning to your feelings that go beyond the current situation. To complicate matters, the people around you will be focused on the situation and their own emotional responses to it. They are unlikely to give the same meaning to the feelings you’re trying to explore or express.

From — ref598
Subjectivity in remembering involves at least three important factors:
o Memories are constructions made in accordance with present needs, desires, influences, etc.
o Memories are often accompanied by feelings and emotions.
o Memory usually involves awareness of the memory.

There is no agreed model of how memory works — but a good model for how memory works must be consistent with the subjective nature of our consciousness

To Mind contents
COGNITIONS — The mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses.

From — ref901 — Nonconscious cognition
The existence of nonconscious cognitive processes has been confirmed. These are inaccessible to conscious introspection but nevertheless essential for consciousness to function. Understanding the full extent of their power requires a radical rethinking of cognition.

From — Ref 516 Cognition and Emotions
From Conclusion — In in order to understand how complex behaviors are carried out in the brain, an understanding of the interactions between the cognition and emotion may be indispensable. Whereas many behaviors may be reasonably well characterized in terms of cognitive-emotional interactions such that emotion and cognition are partly separable, in many situations, true integration of emotion and cognition may also take place.

Cognition refers to processes such as memory, attention, language, problem solving, and planning — perception, discernment, awareness, apprehension, learning, understanding, comprehension, enlightenment, insight, intelligence, reason, reasoning, thinking, (conscious) thought.

Cognition often involves so-called controlled processes, such as when the pursuit of a goal (e.g., maintaining information in Consciousness) needs to be protected from interference (e.g., a distracting stimulus).

A prototypical example of a neural correlate of a cognitive process is the sustained firing of cells in prefrontal cortex to maintain information in Consciousness for brief periods of time.

Whereas there is relative agreement about what constitutes cognition, the same cannot be said about emotions:–
• Some investigators use definitions that incorporate the concepts of drive and motivation: — emotions are states elicited by rewards and punishers.
• Others favour the view that emotions are involved in the conscious (or unconscious) evaluation of events (e.g., fear, anger),
• Others on an extended set of emotions, including moral ones (e.g., pride, envy).
• Strong evidence also links emotions to the body.

It is also important to consider the role of the ascending systems.

Of importance in the present context, the basal forebrain receives both Cortical and Amygdala inputs

In summary, the picture that emerges from anatomical connectivity data suggests a remarkable potential for integration of information.

Brain structures linked to emotion are often subcortical, such as the Amygdala (Limbic System), They are also believed to operate fast and in an automatic fashion, such that certain trigger expressions.

The NERVOUS SYSTEM is a model of the physical parts and their capabilities that enable us to function as human beings. Neurologists have identified different parts of the Brain and their interconnections, but there is still disagreements about what really does what. We know that those parts of the Brain that receive information from the Senses are able to respond quickly.

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The parts of the Brain that analyse and make decisions are not yet understood — The White Matter parts are a complex communications system — the Gray Matter does the “computing”.

According to — Ref522a Jan 2015 — “Mystery of the Consciousness” — the consciousness debates have provoked more mudslinging and fury than most in modern philosophy, perhaps because of how baffling the problem is — opposing combatants tend not merely to disagree, but to find each other’s positions manifestly preposterous — sounds like the Climate Debate but with much less money involved in Carbon Trading and Government Funding.

From — ref738f
The two most powerful functions of the developing Conscious Mind —
1. The ability to imagine that which is not real, or could become be real — success in sport, winning the lottery — lots!
2. The ability to direct your focus (Such as by Mindfulness)– Thinking hard, enjoying a pleasant event, etc.

Both of these involve dealing with our complex of —
• Emotional reactions and
• Realising our Core Human Needs

To Mind contents
Anatomical basis for cognitive-emotional interactions

Advances in our understanding of brain connectivity suggest that a given brain region is only a few synapses away from every other brain region.

Prefrontal areas are among those most distant from the sensory periphery, suggesting that they receive highly-processed and integrated sensory information — is thought to be a key anatomical feature of this region and presumably confers the primate brain with a greater degree of flexibility.

Highly processed information would also be able to support more abstract processing that is required for cognition.

Interestingly, the Amygdala , a region often linked to emotional processing, appears to be equally removed from the sensory periphery — Overall, it appears that the Amygdala is very well situated to integrate and distribute information

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It is also instructive to consider the connectivity of the hypothalamus as it has been long recognized for its importance in emotional behaviours

In particular, via its descending connections that innervate brain-stem motor systems, this structure is thought to play a key role in the implementation of goal-directed behaviors.

Hypothalamic signals also can be conveyed to the cortex, mostly by way of the Thalamus.

Critically, prefrontal Cortical territories project directly to the Hypothalamus. Thus, the hypothalamus appears to be organized in such a way that it can generate both:
• Relatively reflexive behaviours, and
• Behaviours that are voluntarily triggered by inputs from the cerebral Cortex.

Overall, this structure appears to be connected with all levels of the nervous system, including the Neo-cortex, enabling important Hypothalamic regulatory signals to have widespread effects on the brain.

Emotion and cognition conjointly and equally contribute to the control of thought and behaviour.

While these statements were offered as a summary of specific findings concerning working memory performance following mood induction, they may aptly characterize a vast array of real-world situations.

In other words, whereas many behaviours may be reasonably well characterized in terms of cognitive/emotional interactions such that emotion and cognition are partly separable, in many situations, true integration of emotion and cognition may also take place .

Read More — Ref516 Cognition and Emotions

To Mind contents
Competences

Developing a complex of general competences is essential for day to day living, Other competences can be developed to support individual aspirations and social roles.

Learning: In this state you are exercising your cognitive skills, flexing your intellectual muscles. Whatever you’re up to, your thinking mind is engaged and in high gear

Realisation: Realisation means discovery, creativity, invention, and connection. It is related to a craving for attainment and occurs during the development of competence. Quite often what you are seeking can occur while you are having a break, or during sleep or sleepless episodes.

A Habit is generally beneficial — The person with the habit can choose to stop using it, and will subsequently stop successfully if they want to. The psychological/physical component is not an issue as it is with an addiction — ref808 habits-how-they-form-and-how-to-break-them

Neuroscientists have traced our habit-making behaviours to a part of the brain called the basal ganglia, which also plays a key role in the development of emotions, memories and pattern recognition. Decisions, meanwhile, are made in a different part of the brain called the prefrontal cortex. But as soon as a behaviour becomes automatic, the decision-making part of your brain goes into a sleep mode of sorts.

“In fact, the brain starts working less and less,” says Duhigg. “The brain can almost completely shut down. … And this is a real advantage, because it means you have all of this mental activity you can devote to something else.”

A habit may eventually develop into an addiction — with an addiction you are not in control of your choices.

To Mind contents
MEMORY is the selection, encoding and retention of, and the ability to recall, information, personal experiences, and procedures (skills and habits) — Subjectivity the quality of being based on or influenced by personal feelings, tastes, or opinions

These utilise the following types of memory — ref246
• Sensory — Paying attention to sensory generates the info in short-term 1/2 to 4 secs
• Short Term — kept for approximately 20 to 30 seconds — ref247
• Working — manipulation of stored information
• Long-Term — Nonconscious

We are not aware of much that is recalled, for example Habits/Competences — Habit learning is essential, as it relieves us of having to consciously work through routine daily activities.

The process is known as Neural Plasticity, and in achieving a particular significant change it generally affects many Neurons and their links (called Synapses).

After the amazing learning of the early years we proceed to improve our capabilities in language, to invent, to act, perform gymnastics, learn useful habits, and so on – at much higher levels than the early accomplishments (Also, unfortunately, we are as likely to learn Bad Habits).

The “data” to be stored is a mixture of Analogue (Vision, Audio etc) and Digital (Numbers, Letters). These have to be encoded — and decoded on recall.

So, the Memory System has the ability to encode, store and recall information — ref 532

ENCODING allows the perceived item of use or interest to be converted into a construct that can be stored within the brain and recalled later from short term or long term memory.

For example, Visual sensory information is temporarily stored within our iconic memory and working memory before being encoded into permanent long-term storage.

Working memory stores information for immediate use or manipulation which is aided through hooking onto previously archived items already present in the long-term memory of an individual

So the Sensory, Short Term and Working Memories function to provide a base for our Consciousness — and a means of providing for storage to and recall from our Nonconscious. The ways in which storage and recall can be made more effective are discussed later.

To Mind contents
The ORGANISATION OF MEMORY

The ability to access and retrieve information from long-term memory allows us to use these memories to make decisions, interact with others, and solve problems.

A phenomenon called Long-Term Potentiation allows a synapse to increase strength with increasing numbers of transmitted signals between the two neurons. These cells also organise themselves into groups specializing in different kinds of information processing. Thus, with new experiences the brain creates more connections and may ‘re-wire’.

The specific way information is organized in long-term memory is not well understood, but researchers do know that these memories are arranged in groups.

CLUSTERING is used to organize related information into groups. Information that is categorized becomes easier to remember and recall. For example, consider the following group of words: Desk, apple, bookshelf, red, plum, table, green, pineapple, purple, chair, peach, yellow

SEMANTIC NETWORK — This model suggests that certain triggers activate associated memories. A memory of a specific place might activate memories about related things that have occurred in that location.

To start ccc
Recall

Memory Encoding ref 532

Depth of processing

Different levels of processing influence how well information is remembered. These levels of processing can be illustrated by maintenance and elaborate rehearsal.

Maintenance and elaborative rehearsal

Maintenance rehearsal is a shallow form of processing information which involves focusing on an object without thought to its meaning or its association with other objects.

For example the repetition of a series of numbers is a form of maintenance rehearsal. In contrast, elaborative or relational rehearsal is a deep form of processing information and involves thought of the object’s meaning as well as making connections between the object, past experiences and the other objects of focus. Using the example of numbers, one might associate them with dates that are personally significant such as your parents’ birthdays (past experiences) or perhaps you might see a pattern in the numbers that helps you to remember them.[18]
File:US penny 2003.jpg

Due to the deeper level of processing that occurs with elaborative rehearsal it is more effective than maintenance rehearsal in creating new memories.[18] This has been demonstrated in people’s lack of knowledge of the details in everyday objects. For example, in one study where Americans were asked about the orientation of the face on their country’s penny few recalled this with any degree of certainty. Despite the fact that it is a detail that is often seen, it is not remembered as there is no need to because the color discriminates the penny from other coins.[19] The ineffectiveness of maintenance rehearsal, simply being repeatedly exposed to an item, in creating memories has also been found in people’s lack of memory for the layout of the digits 0-9 on calculators and telephones.

Maintenance rehearsal has been demonstrated to be important in learning but its effects can only be demonstrated using indirect methods such as lexical decision tasks,[21] and word stem completion[22] which are used to assess implicit learning. In general, however previous learning by maintenance rehearsal is not apparent when memory is being tested directly or explicitly with questions like “ Is this the word you were shown earlier?”

Intention to learn

Studies have shown that the intention to learn has no direct effect on memory encoding. Instead, memory encoding is dependent on how deeply each item is encoded, which could be affected by intention to learn, but not exclusively. That is, intention to learn can lead to more effective learning strategies, and consequently, better memory encoding, but if you learn something incidentally (i.e. without intention to learn) but still process and learn the information effectively, it will get encoded just as well as something learnt with intention.[23]
The effects of elaborative rehearsal or deep processing can be attributed to the number of connections made while encoding that increase the number of pathways available for retrieval.

OPTIMAL ENCODING

Organization can be seen as the key to better memory. As demonstrated in the above section on levels of processing the connections that are made between the to-be-remembered item, other to-be-remembered items, previous experiences and context generate retrieval paths for the to-be-remembered item. These connections impose organization on the to-be-remembered item, making it more memorable.

MNEMONICS
For simple material such as lists of words Mnemonics are the best strategy.[citation needed] Mnemonic Strategies are an example of how finding organization within a set of items helps these items to be remembered. In the absence of any apparent organization within a group organization can be imposed with the same memory enhancing results. An example of a mnemonic strategy that imposes organization is the peg-word system which associates the to- be-remembered items with a list of easily remembered items.

Another example of a mnemonic device commonly used is the first letter of every word system or acronyms. CHUNKING

STATE-DEPENDANT LEARNING

For optimal encoding, connections are not only formed between the items themselves and past experiences, but also between the internal state or mood of the encoder and the situation they are in.

However, although the external environment is important at the time of encoding in creating multiple pathways for retrieval, other studies have shown that simply creating the same internal state that you had at the time of encoding is sufficient to serve as a retrieval cue.

Therefore putting yourself in the same mindset that you were in at the time of encoding will help recall in the same way that being in the same situation helps recall.

Encoding specificity. xxx

The context of learning shapes how information is encoded. To be efficient at remembering information, one must consider the demands that future recall will place on this information and study in a way that will match those demands.

This early learning is about becoming more competent through practice and application. Playing with toys is an essential part of learning co-ordination of senses and motor movements — providing new challenges as appropriate.

For more demanding learning, the stages in achieving a skill can follow this sort of pattern:
• Nonconscious incompetence: I don’t really know what I want – Will this do what I want – Will I ever understand?
• Conscious incompetence: I’m getting a vague understanding! – This is what I want to do ….. If I’m diligent, I can afford to make little mistakes – I’ll backup as I go.
• Conscious competence: Why didn’t I see this before.
• Nonconscious competence: I hardly notice how easy it is – I’m actually getting better at other things!
This early learning is about becoming more competent through practice and application. Playing with toys is an essential part of learning co-ordination of senses and motor movements — providing new challenges as appropriate.

To Mind contents
WORKING WITH THE MIND

Ref250 ref250 Emotions 1 includes emotional intelligence
Ref251 i best-practices/habits-of-mind

From — ref897 — processing-information-with-Nonconscious-mind

The Conscious mind is a set of peripheral devices, presenting an interface that interacts with the outside world

Our minds are also similarly proficient at multitasking; while we are busy experiencing a portion of what is going on around us, our minds are busy absorbing much of the rest of what is present in our environment.

Our conscious minds work much more slowly than our Nonconscious minds, and are overall less adept at processing information, less efficient at the task.

The Nonconscious mind therefore can be said to be more intelligent than the conscious mind.

Because the Nonconscious mind is responsible for the bulk of our mental processing, it can also be said to be responsible for the development of a large part of our personality, tastes, talents, and so on. It determines, in essence, how we function as beings.

The Nonconscious mind is the reason we are capable of having — and understanding — so many “unspoken rules” when it comes to social interaction.

One excellent example of this is Language; grammatical, semantic (or syntactic) rules, idiomatic conventions, innumerable idiosyncrasies and specific linguistic customs that arise from one’s local environment make up a large portion of what we must know in order to communicate effectively with those around us.

If all such information had to be processed by the conscious mind, simple conversation would take hours, even days, to form.

Our Nonconscious learning of these facets of language are as necessary as they are innate.

There is a theory that mental illness and strong emotional conflicts likely arise when the information in the Nonconscious mind and that in the conscious mind does not entirely line up, when our logic and beliefs tell us one thing, but our “instincts” tell us other.

For example, a person experiencing a panic instinct will look for a reason to consciously explain it (i.e., “I’m having heart attack!”), which then makes the panic worse. This process, repeated, lies behind the development of a panic disorder.

The Nonconscious mind is thought to be composed only of what it has absorbed from the external environment, and to be responsible for the following processes:

Nonconscious learning gives rise to the development of personality traits —
1. The influence it has on our judgments and decisions,
2. The influence on our Emotions (both feelings and reactions)
3. Due to the various organizations and reorganizations that occur spontaneously in Nonconscious knowledge systems.

As point three suggests, our Nonconscious knowledge systems are far from rigid; they constantly change, and we change with them, leading to what we interpret as the growth and alteration of the personality. — Nonconscious and contents CSA

From — ref903 — Conclusions of the Research on Nonconscious Information Processing

The empirical evidence. Experimental (and some quasi-natural experimental) data collected in this lab and supported by other research have demonstrated a number mechanisms that are responsible for —
• Nonconscious learning and acquisition of new dispositions (e.g., new personality characteristics);
• The nonconscious influence of that information on our judgments, decisions, feelings, and emotional responses; and
• The internal dynamics (changes and constant spontaneous “reorganizations”) of those nonconscious knowledge systems.

The dynamic nature of our nonconsciousness —
The nonconscious knowledge systems are not static. They constantly change. These changes may lead to a spontaneous (“self-perpetuating”) growth of some dispositions on the expense of others, and a spontaneous creation of news ones (e.g., “nonconscious indirect inferences,” “the development of meta-knowledge”). The internal dynamics of those changes influences the way we feel, think, reason, and experience the world around us. In most circumstances, this dynamics facilitates our cognition and our ability to efficiently cope with the environment. In some instances, however, it may cause mental disorders.

To Mind contents
What can go WRONG

We might consider that Emotional responses and the Stream of Consciousness are suppressed if we suffer from Depression, GAD, Addiction, etc.

Re-defining Depression ref244

While many people tend to characterize depression as simply an abundance of negative feelings, it is important to note that a lack of positivity is also an important characteristic.

In fact, it may be the most important. Researchers now believe that this may be due to the fact that people who are prone to depression have an active habit of suppressing positive feelings that come up naturally throughout the day

We perform well when stressed but not too much —
— Performance Versus Stress
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ccp208 — ref678

Some people can become attached to rejection — re245

This includes the tendency to consciously or unconsciously encourage and at the same time deny feelings of rejection through simple or elaborate self-fulfilling schemes.

Therapist & Self-Help

A distinctive aspect of the self-help practitioners is their confidence in their beliefs (or hoppes)!

The NLP beliefs have been expressed as follows:–

From — ref795 understanding your mind conscious and unconscious processing/ xxx

The challenge is that thinking and its derivative talking — conscious mind — is such a small part of the intelligence of the whole mind that therapies that are restricted solely to conscious mind analysis are not successful — The conscious mind has limited processing capabilities, compared to the unconscious mind..

A lot of psychological approaches have been built upon an alleged superiority of Conscious thinking, with therapists using methods to get the clients to think and talk their way out of a problem.

The conscious mind is dominated by the logic of natural language partitions represented in the narrative of a linguistic description.

George A Miller’s paper ‘The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two’ is often cited in NLP as a reference point for research into the limitations of our capacity for Conscious Awareness.

Miller suggests conscious processing is limited to just seven plus or minus two bits of information. We refer to the Conscious Mind as the representation of the immediate map you have conscious access to.

Your Conscious Mind expresses itself through your internal running commentary on the events you experience in any one moment.
Your Conscious Mind is the part of your mind that you are using to read and process these words.

As you look at this page you are saying the words in your mind, and as you derive meaning from the text, you establish how the meaning relates to you.

Your conscious mind is linear, sequential, and logical and likes everything to make sense. You may have heard the expression in NLP “he has an over-active Conscious Mind”.

This means the person seeks to logically understand everything (a real paradox), wants a label and explanation for his experience, finds it difficult to be in the moment or go with the flow, does not switch off from internal dialogue, and is often less aware of sensory experience.

Your Unconscious has amazing processing capabilities compared with the conscious mind. Research shows the Unconscious Mind absorbs millions of bits of sensory information through the nervous system in any one second. (very contentious — “deals with” is more plausible) ………..

Your Unconscious Mind expresses itself through feelings, habits, and sensations in your body i.e. pain, light-headedness, muscle tension. So-called emotions such as happiness, sadness etc are the conscious mind labels assigned to unconscious processes such as electrical chemical reactions in the nervous system.

The emotion is felt in the body as sensations; we nominalise the experience in the body and talk about emotions — often losing touch with the true feeling.

Example of harnessing the unconscious communication for change — unconscious communication through pain sensation

Read details at ref795 — understanding your mind conscious and unconscious processing/ xxx

It involves a “Conversation with the Unconscious” as follows:
“Unconscious, for a yes response will you please increase the sensations in my lower back.”
I experienced a sharp increase in the pain. I thanked my unconscious for the signal and sensations returned to the level before I asked the question …..

It concludes —
The so-called problems in life are only there because the communication between the conscious and unconscious part of mind has not been effective!

Remember the conscious and unconscious mind do not exist inside your mind, the labels are given to package different process that occur in the nervous system.

ref739b1 Accelerated Mind Patterning (AMP) and Rapidly Accelerated Mind Patterning (RAMP)
Dr. Buffington developed the AMP process after studying Neuro-linguistic Programming.

To Contents
Focus

To Contents
As-if — Pretending

This proposed the self-perception view of emotion that behaviours cause feelings.

Subsequent research has shown that, in almost all aspects of our everyday lives, acting as if you are a certain type of person, you become that person – what I call the “As If” principle.

Our everyday experience tells us that our emotions cause us to behave in certain ways. Feeling happy makes us smile, and feeling sad makes us frown. Case closed, mystery solved. However, James became convinced that this commonsense view was incomplete and proposed a radical new theory.

James hypothesised that the relationship between emotion and behaviour was a two-way street, and that behaviour can cause emotion

For 10 quick and effective exercises that use the As If principle to transform how you think and behave. – see How to change

“Act the Part, action not plans!

It helps if you are interested or are motivated in some way.

To Contents
Imagination

From Albert Einstein — “I’m enough of an artist to draw freely on my imagination, which I think is more important than knowledge. Knowledge is limited. Imagination encircles the world.” — ref793 — Science of Imagination.

From — ref793 cience-of-imagination

“I’m enough of an artist to draw freely on my imagination, which I think is more important than knowledge. Knowledge is limited. Imagination encircles the world.” — Albert Einstein

Imagination draws on our experiences and knowledge of the world around us and combines them with the complete unknown to make something new.

Both neurologists and psychologists agree that play in early childhood is necessary for children to develop at a normal rate and to reach their full potential.

Read More — ref793

From — ref792 Function of Imagination and its emergence

A child’s imagination typically emerges between two and five years of age. Closely linked with expressive language, these two skills often take-off together. Imagination is a marker of cognitive growth at certain age stages — it can serve many important functions. Imaginary play is a way for children to solidify their understanding of the world around them and set events to memory.

Depending on how you define the imagination, you can either see it as disappearing or waning during childhood or you can see it the way the author does, as persisting throughout life.”

Read More — ref792 Function of Imagination and its emergence

From — ref794 ways-to-increase-imagination-creativity

Imagination is an integral part of the human mind that covers both the creative and learning spheres. Increasing one’s imagination creates possibilities. It is considered to be the creative faculty of the mind that helps a person in process oriented activities, such as thinking, memorizing, remembering, or opinion forming. A rich imagination can enable a person to pursue and accomplish many great things. There are various ways to enrich one’s imagination how one can enrich imagination.

Open your mind to unexplored paths. Creativity is often tagged together with originality. To come up with new ideas may be challenging and even oftentimes daunting, as unexplored paths may pose unexpected threats. It is also an avenue where one can find genuine ideas that can result to a successful endeavor.

• Read more. Creativity and imagination is sparked by learning. One’s willingness to learn new things gauges one’s ability to accept and adapt to change. It improves one’s adaptability to imaginative reasoning and creative thinking.

• Tell stories. People love to listen to stories and each person has a story to tell. Practice imaginative and creative thinking by telling as many stories as you can. Let it be descriptive. Let it allow you and your listener to visualize what is being told. Visualization is an important part of increasing imagination. Visualization is often perceived as one’s ability to create a clear and vivid picture in the mind. Yet this concept entails various senses as well. Visualization also involves one’s sense of touch, smell, taste, and other senses. Visualization enables you to imagine the story being told or the object being described. The more imaginative and creative the mind becomes, the more elaborate one’s visualizations can be.

• Be curious. Learning new things sparks creativity and increases imagination. A part of learning new things is being curious. Children tend to be more imaginative because of their curious nature. Our inherent nature to seek answers or to learn new things does not disappear over age. Feed curiosity by learning and experiencing new things and notice how your imagination improves. Feed your curiosity by asking questions and build your ideas with the help of insight from others.

Open your mind to unexplored paths. Creativity is often tagged together with originality. To come up with new ideas may be challenging and even oftentimes daunting, as unexplored paths may pose unexpected threats. It is also an avenue where one can find genuine ideas that can result to a successful endeavor.

• Read more. Creativity and imagination is sparked by learning. One’s willingness to learn new things gauges one’s ability to accept and adapt to change. It improves one’s adaptability to imaginative reasoning and creative thinking.

• Tell stories. People love to listen to stories and each person has a story to tell. Practice imaginative and creative thinking by telling as many stories as you can. Let it be descriptive. Let it allow you and your listener to visualize what is being told. Visualization is an important part of increasing imagination. Visualization is often perceived as one’s ability to create a clear and vivid picture in the mind. Yet this concept entails various senses as well. Visualization also involves one’s sense of touch, smell, taste, and other senses. Visualization enables you to imagine the story being told or the object being described. The more imaginative and creative the mind becomes, the more elaborate one’s visualizations can be.

• Open your mind to unexplored paths.
• Read more.
• Tell stories.
• Be curious.
• Don’t be afraid to try something new.
• Expand your interests.
• Develop your talents.
• Spend time with creative people.
• Look at things differently.
CCondition your mind to relax through meditation techniques.

Read More — 794 ref794

Conclusion is that the Non-conscious Mind relies heavily on progressive training in order for it to communicate when “queried” by the Conscious Mind. Thus memory training and effective learning are required.


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EMOTIONS (Motivations) play a major role in the Mind

From — ref882 – 2001 — emotions are automatic responses to previous value judgments

Emotions are caused by one’s thoughts. They are both triggered by one’s thoughts and programmed by one’s thoughts. The triggering is straightforward to show. Hearing the word “rape”, causes an emotion — See — ref883 — what-is-a-trigger

The emotion is a response to our understanding of the situation. Emotions are triggered by particular beliefs. Fear is based on a belief that one’s life is in danger. Pleasure is experienced when one believes a value has been achieved. Each emotion is a particular response to a certain kind of judgment.

With a proper understanding of how emotions are formed, it can be seen that they serve a purpose for lightning fast value judgments which enable faster responses to time-critical situations and, as automatic responses, they can give useful insights to complicated problems. But emotions should never be taken at face value. They need to be validated with reason to ensure that they are proper.

From — ref 653
Emotions are more physiological than psychological — Any significant disruption of familiar sensory patterns triggers a biological response, commonly called emotion.

An Emotion is initially dealt with by the Emotional (Limbic) Brain — This enables us to respond immediately to indications of danger.

Whether triggered from outwith the body or within, emotions produce major changes all through the body. most notably in muscle-tone, energy level, tone of voice, and facial expressions. They signal organs and muscle groups, accelerate or decelerate cardiovascular rates, and mute or exaggerate messages of pain, deprivation, and pleasure.

People around you will be focused on the situation and their own emotional responses to it — However, they are unlikely to give the same meaning to the feelings you’re trying to explore or express.

The components of Emotion are:
• Arousal (energy)
• Motivation
• Feelings

AROUSAL is the energy that powers emotion. Even without emotional stimulation, arousal ebbs and flows in roughly 90-minute cycles throughout the day, including while we sleep. At peak arousal times we are more susceptible to intense emotional response.

Excitability and abundant energy mark periods of high arousal. Abnormally high levels produce over-stimulation, obsessions, compulsions, insomnia, or mania.

Periods of low arousal permit relaxation, letting go, or numbing out. Abnormally low levels of arousal create depression, muted emotions, or hypersomnia.

Specific emotions sometimes attach to arousal levels. For some people, high arousal produces increased anxiety or confidence. For others, low arousal stimulates shame, pride, anxiety, or withdrawal of interest.

MOTIVATION. Emotions send action signals to the muscles and organs of the body to prepare us for to do something. Each emotion carries general motivation for behavior selected from the broad categories of approach, avoid, or attack.

If the change stimulating the emotion seems promising, the usual response is interest or enjoyment, which motivate various approach behaviors to “sense more, learn more, get more.”

If the change seems dangerous, anger, fear, or disgust emerges with motivation to attack (devalue) or avoid.

Motivation is the most important component of emotions. We cannot understand ourselves or other people without understanding motivation. We almost always fail to act in our best interests when we ignore motivation.

Types of Motivation. Below are examples of the primary motivations that foster growth and empowerment:
• Interest – find out more, get beneath the surface
• Passion – indulge, plunge
• Conviction – work to keep the status quo or change it
• Compassion – sympathize with the pain and hardship of self and other
• Enjoyment – appreciate, relax with
• Anxiety – learn more, increase ability to cope
• Shame – hide, cover-up.
• Distress – get back what was lost or compensate for its loss; consolidate gains
• Guilt – reconnect, compensate.

Motivations that have survival importance but are scarcely helpful in negotiating the complexities of most modern problems:
• Fear – freeze, run
• Disgust – recoil, get away from
• Anger – control, neutralize, devalue, punish, warn, threaten, intimidate, avenge
• Contempt/hatred – annihilate.

FEELINGS

The subjective experience of emotions—what they feel like—dominates our conceptions about them. However, this slowest component of emotion processing is only part of the emotional terrain. Trying to understand or change emotions through focus on how they feel is like trying to understand and change intestinal gas through focus on discomfort. Pop-psychologists make that error when they insist on “exploring and expressing” feelings.

The fact is, we cannot explore and express feelings without changing them. Mental focus amplifies and magnifies, creating the psychological equivalent to the observer effect in physics. Moreover, the brain loads into implicit memory other times you’ve experienced the feeling you’re trying to explore or express. This gives historical meaning to your feelings that go beyond the current situation. To complicate matters, the people around you will be focused on the situation and their own emotional responses to it. They are unlikely to give the same meaning to the feelings you’re trying to explore or express.

Read more — ref 653


CCP220, ref788

Third view on emotions, From — ref788 Emotions and Energy

What we think of as emotion is the experience of energy moving through the body. This is generally felt as sensations of contraction such as tension or expansion such as calm. The Latin derivative for the word emotion, ‘emotere’, literally means energy in motion.

Understanding that emotions are energy implies that they are fluid, moving resources meant to be felt and released versus suppressed and ignored. The latter is the true culprit of low emotional intelligence and stress burnout.

The emotional brain is considered to have executive power in the brain. It influences all decision making, thought processes, memories, and present experiences. Your ability to understand, deal with, and effectively use your emotional energy is vital to your happiness levels.

The sensations you feel in your body hold the key to unlocking limiting patterns, transforming stress, and generating lasting happiness. Your body gives a constant stream of reliable information about your experience in the form of sensation. It’s a library of who you are at the deepest level, including all that has happened to you and all that you dream about. Understanding your body sensations will transform your life.

An Emotions often leads to thoughts — on what they mean, what to do about them, etc)

Sensory and emotional information is recorded into memory first; thoughts and perceptions, second. This distinction provides clues for increasing emotional intelligence while pointing out the limitations of purely thought-based approaches.

Read More — ref788 Emotions and Energy

From — ref881 — Sources of Emotions
According to the Schacter-Singer model, both physical changes and conscious mental processing are needed to fully experience any emotion.

Researchers believe that the frontal lobes and the amygdala are among the most important brain structures affecting emotions. Feelings of happiness and pleasure are linked to the prefrontal cortex. Anger, fear, sadness, and other negative emotions are linked to the amygdala.

Physiologically, emotions aid in survival. For example, sudden fear often causes a person to freeze. Because animals usually attack in response to motion, at its simplest level, fear reduces the chances of attack.

Emotions also help people monitor their social behavior and regulate their interactions with others. Every person unconsciously learns to “read” the outward expressions of other people and apply past experience to determine what these outward signs indicate about what the other person is feeling.

EMMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE refers to people’s ability to monitor their own and other people’s emotional states and to use this information to act wisely in relationships. Emotional intelligence has five parts:

• Self-awareness — recognizing internal feelings
• Managing emotions — finding ways to handle emotions that are appropriate to the situation
• Motivation — using self-control to channel emotions toward a goal
• Empathy — understanding the emotional perspective of other people
• Handling relationships– using personal information and information about others to handle social relationships and to develop interpersonal skills

CONSCIOUSNESS

According to — Ref522a “Mystery of the Consciousness” — the consciousness debates have provoked more mudslinging and fury than most in modern philosophy, perhaps because of how baffling the problem is:– opposing combatants tend not merely to disagree, but to find each other’s positions manifestly preposterous — sounds like the Climate Debate but with much less money involved in Carbon Trading and Government Funding.

From — ref738f:
The two most powerful functions of the developing Conscious Mind —
1. The ability to imagine that which is not real, or could become be real — success in sport, winning the lottery — lots!
2. The ability to direct your focus (Such as Mindfulness)– Thinking hard, enjoying a pleasant event, etc.

So, we imagine our awareness through our senses can be supplemented by inputs from our Umconscious mind.

An alternative description of Consciousness ia at — ref739 — Understanding-your-conscious-mind

First, it identifies information received through the senses: sight, sound, smell, taste, touch, or feeling. Your conscious mind is continually observing and categorizing what is going on around you.

To illustrate, imagine that you are walking along the sidewalk and you decide to cross the street. You step off the curb. At that moment, you hear the roar of an automobile engine. You immediately turn and look in the direction of the moving automobile to identify the sound and where it is coming from. This is the first function.

The second function of your conscious mind is comparison. The information about the car that you have seen and heard goes immediately to your subconscious mind. There, it is compared with all of your previously stored information and experiences with moving automobiles.

If the car, for example, is a block away, and moving at thirty miles per hour, your subconscious memory bank will tell you that there is no danger and that you can continue walking.

If, on the other hand, the car is moving toward you at sixty miles per hour and is only 100 yards away, you will get a “danger” message that will stimulate further action on your part.

The third function of your conscious mind is analysis, and analysis always precedes the fourth function, deciding.

Your conscious mind functions very much like a computer, performing two functions:–

It accepts or rejects data in making choices and decisions.

It can deal with only one thought at a time, positive or negative, “yes” or “no.” This is why people who adopt positive thinking lifestyles regularly read inspirational quotes. Our single track minds can only entertain one idea at a time, so keeping it occupied with uplifting material has the power to block negative thoughts.

Positive affirmations are also very useful for keeping our brains occupied with pleasant and empowering thoughts or visualizations.

SUB/UNCONSCIOUS

The Mind of a human being comes into existence and becomes more Aware and Capable as they experience — develop — and learn !

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Our potential Awareness is a combination of our Consciousness — what we see and hear, our feelings and moods — and — the Unconscious/Subconscious — that is our store of what we inherit — and our personal experiences — emotions, habits, competences, opinions, prejudices, beliefs.

From — ref838
• The Subconscious is that part of consciousness that is not currently in focal awareness.
• The Unconscious mind consists of the processes in the mind that occur automatically and are not available to introspection, and include thought processes, memory, affect, and motivation.

From — ref839 — Difference/Subconscious vs Unconscious mind
The unconscious mind includes socially unacceptable ideas, wishes and desires, traumatic memories and painful emotions that have been repressed

From — ref739
A New Theory Suggests All Conscious Thoughts And Decisions Are Actually Made By Your Unconscious
Morsella suggests that the conscious does not do nearly as much as we thought. In fact, conscious thought is just a small fraction of what is happening in the brain. Instead, it is the unconscious that is doing everything for us, and we are completely unaware of it.

Drawing conclusions from the above, let us just consider the various functions carried out by “All Consciouses”


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Gustav Jung introduced his idea of the “Collective Unconscious” — ref884

The collective unconscious is a concept originally defined by psychoanalyst Carl Jung and is sometimes called the objective psyche. It refers to the idea that a segment of the deepest unconscious mind is genetically inherited and is not shaped by personal experience.

According to Jung’s teachings, the collective unconscious is common to all human beings and is responsible for a number of deep-seated beliefs and instincts, such as spirituality, sexual behavior, and life and death instincts.

The Mind must deal with our INDIVIDUAL NEEDS —

Our core Needs are:
• Safety ——— Avoiding Harm
• Connection —– Attaching/relating to others
• Satisfaction — Using our Rewards system — with Neurotransmitters and “enlivened” by Nicotine, Alcohol and Opioides

AVOIDING HARM may be as urgent as “Flight, Fight or freeze” — thankfully now less common in many Cultures — OR persistent harm the relating to shelter, where homelessness is affecting more people.

Chronic Stress can and seems increasingly to be causing Mental Illness — for example — the demand for higher Productivity, without providing the means, stresses many work situations.

In order to avoid harm we have:–
• A historical pre-disposition to negative emotions — more likely to occur due to moods of anxiety, alertness — with an expectation that things will go wrong wrong
• The requirement for a quick response system

Safety related Emotions, and resultant motivations are not sophisticated or accurate, but their speed and utility make up for what they lack in sophistication and precision. Emotions, when they are not disordered, provide information about your circumstances in a simple, quick way that does not involve a lot of cognition. So they attempt to tell you if a situation is optimal or not aligned with your goal, and how you might approach it. Our responses must be sharpened through having dealt with previous events re Avoiding Harm. Our Emotional Intelligence will develop as we learn to cope.

However, our Emotional Responses can be upset following traumatic experiences. The responses can then become hypersensitive and reaction to stimuli that one would usually disregard as not representing a danger to the body. Many of us remain anxious about possible problems.

The Human Psyche is vulnerable. Often when things go wrong our Human Nature allows matters to get worse. This is a cost of mankind’s cravings for adventure and understanding.

ATTACHING/RELATING TO OTHERS need

According to the Attachment theory, approximately 50% of economically “comfortable” people in Western Society enjoy good relationships with others, 20% tend to avoid relationships with others, another 10% tend to cling to relationships, the remaining 10% swing between clinging and avoiding — however it should noted that we all probably experience Avoiding and Clinging in some relationships.

From — ref778 Need for relationships connection attachment
The “belongingness hypothesis” states that people have a basic psychological need to feel closely connected to others, and that caring, affectionate bonds from close relationships are a major part of human behavior.

SATISFACTION need

Emotions are a reward or punishment for a specific motivated behaviour, Read More — motivation-and-emotion (ref360)

The School at Medicine at Mt Sinai explains that we have “reward pathways” — (ref 291).
The most important reward pathway in brain is a dopamine system.

Under normal conditions, the pathway controls an individual’s responses to natural rewards, such as food, sex, and social interactions, and is therefore an important determinant of motivation and incentive drive.

Reward cycles in neurology


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From — ref806 The neurobiology of pleasure, reward processes, addiction and their health implications

Conclusions Pleasure can serve health, but is also capable of promoting addiction and other dangerous outcomes or behaviors.

It is a complex neurobiological phenomenon, relying on reward circuitry activity and limbic processes. These CNS processes can involve dopaminergic signaling. Moreover, opioid peptides and endogenous morphinergic mechanisms play a role as well.

Natural rewarding or pleasurable activities are necessary for survival and appetitive motivation, usually governing beneficial biological behaviors like eating, sex and reproduction.

Thus, pleasure is much needed.

EXAMPLES OF HARNESSING THE UNCONSCIOUS COMMUNICATION FOR CHANGE

Unconscious communication through pain sensation

A few years ago I pulled a sacral muscle in the lower part of my back and was in considerable pain. A visit to the osteopath offered me mild relief. I was advised that the natural healing process would take six weeks and exercise and good posture would help me get better. Good posture isn’t an easy task when you’re in pain. I wanted to be free of pain and wanted to return to my normal posture, I thought, “I am getting better quicker than that!” Taking the advice of the osteopath to take light exercise, I took my dogs for a long walk. I went to the forest and sat down in clearing and began to let my mind go. I could see my dogs playing, the mist rising on the grass, the clear blue morning sky, the new leaves swaying on the trees. I could hear the birds singing, the wind rustling the leaves, and I could feel the cool spring breeze on my face. I made no judgements; I had no internal dialogue, just my sensory awareness totally open to the input. I was probably in this state for about half an hour. I stood up, walked back through the park, surveyed the beauty of nature on this crisp April morning, and made my first linguistic representation since sitting down in the forest – the words “total harmony”. I walked home gradually returning to my regular state. I showered, got ready for the office, and only realised when I got in my car, that I was nearly free of my back pain. I had a twinge of pain at the bottom of my back so I decided to use the sensation of pain and set up a communication loop with my unconscious mind.

“Unconscious, for a yes response will you please increase the sensations in my lower back.”

I experienced a sharp increase in the pain. I thanked my unconscious for the signal and sensations returned to the level before I asked the question. I tested, and I could not make the change in sensations happen consciously.

I then asked my unconscious for a no response, “Unconscious, for a no response, will you please reduce the sensations in my lower back.”

I experienced a reduction, I thanked my unconscious and the sensations returned to the level prior to me asking question. I asked my unconscious to clarify if there was a positive intention for the sensations and I experienced an increase in the signals (a yes response). I asked my unconscious to find/create five new choices (and signal when it found them) that are as good as or better than what I was experiencing at that moment (pain) and match the intention. After five minutes I received a yes signal. I asked my unconscious to now take responsibility for making the change, received a yes response and checked again. By the end of the day I was pain free and had normal posture.

If you are trained in NLP, you will be aware that the process above is the ‘six step reframe’, now known as the ‘n step reframe,’ created by John Grinder. The key to the above was working with an involuntary unconscious signal and intention. Pain is certainly involuntarily and the way I set up the signal I could not control. The body has a phenomenal way to heal and with good communication you harness its healing abilities. I did not need to consciously know the intention, just confirm there is one. Since then I have been free of back pain. There is one exception, and that is when I adopt an uneven posture with more weight on my left leg. I had made a habit of this sloppy posture, and as trainer would often spend long periods standing this way. If I ever assume this posture now, I get the signal, and I am very happy to listen to the signal. Was not the intention linked to changing this posture, I will never know for sure, nor do I need to know, it’s just a story. The key to this unconscious change pattern is creating an involuntary signal.

There are many ways of working with the unconscious mind including establishing an involuntary signal, metaphor, behavioural tasking, hypnosis and dreams, All of these processes (and there are more) engage the unconscious mind whilst cleverly occupying the conscious mind. Consider the conscious mind as the organiser and the unconscious mind as the provider. Using this metaphor, the organiser requests of the provider resources to create a different quality of experience in a given context. When the communication is clean the provider delivers to the organiser what has been requested. The so-called problems in life are only there because the communication between the conscious and unconscious part of mind has not been effective!

Remember the conscious and unconscious mind do not exist inside your mind, the labels are given to package different process that occur in the nervous system. By establishing effective communication between conscious and unconscious processes you can easily solve problems, be more creative and generally create a different quality of experience in your life.

Needs xxx

Humans, through developing relationships with others have been able to specialise, i.e. to find a role as, say a musician, or as a guru. To do this they develop their expertise, knowledge, understanding. These are stored in the Subconscious. As the expertise develops new items of expertise and understanding are added through intuition (This is speculative).

Buddhist Philosophers imagined a “stream of consciousness” as the model of a link from sonsciousness to the sub-coscious — In is intuitively appealing. The names of the Moods and Emotions in the stream are Hell, Hunger, Instinct, Anger, Tranquillity, Rapture, Learning, and Realisation, and Helping.

They’re all present together, like so many ingredients in a stew. But at any given moment, depending on what you’re thinking or doing, or on what’s going on around you, you’ll experience one of these states on a priority basis (an intersting aside is that each element can have positive or negative aspects. This is a common feature in many models/conceptions – the best known of these being the Yin,Yang of Chinese Philosophy. Yin and Yang can be thought of as complementary (rather than opposing) forces).

Ref 280 provides an explanation of how Consciousness Evolved.

The Attention Schema Theory (AST), developed over the past five years (written 2016), may be able to provide an answer. The theory suggests that consciousness arises as a solution to one of the most fundamental problems facing any nervous system: — Too much information constantly flows in to be fully processed

The brain evolved increasingly sophisticated mechanisms for deeply processing a few select signals at the expense of others, and in the AST, consciousness is the ultimate result of that evolutionary sequence.

We now know a lot about the biology and neurology of the “Mind”, but much remains to be understood, particularly for the interested lay-person.

There is, for example, no agreement on the “Emotional Brain” — the Limbic System. However this should not deter us from a “functional model” that ignores brain structure and related models.

We have more understanding of that part of the brain and nervous system with respect to how the Autonomics System and its two modes of operation, which takes care of many of the bodily functions, both for “normal” responses and “demanding and threat” responses.

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Therapist & Self-Help

A distinctive aspect of the self-help practitioners is their confidence in their beliefs (or hoppes)!

The NLP beliefs have been expressed as follows:–

From — ref795 understanding your mind conscious and unconscious processing/ xxx

The challenge is that thinking and its derivative talking — conscious mind — is such a small part of the intelligence of the whole mind that therapies that are restricted solely to conscious mind analysis are not successful — The conscious mind has limited processing capabilities, compared to the unconscious mind..

A lot of psychological approaches have been built upon an alleged superiority of Conscious thinking, with therapists using methods to get the clients to think and talk their way out of a problem.

The conscious mind is dominated by the logic of natural language partitions represented in the narrative of a linguistic description.

George A Miller’s paper ‘The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two’ is often cited in NLP as a reference point for research into the limitations of our capacity for Conscious Awareness.

Miller suggests conscious processing is limited to just seven plus or minus two bits of information. We refer to the Conscious Mind as the representation of the immediate map you have conscious access to.

Your Conscious Mind expresses itself through your internal running commentary on the events you experience in any one moment.
Your Conscious Mind is the part of your mind that you are using to read and process these words.

As you look at this page you are saying the words in your mind, and as you derive meaning from the text, you establish how the meaning relates to you.

Your conscious mind is linear, sequential, and logical and likes everything to make sense. You may have heard the expression in NLP “he has an over-active Conscious Mind”.

This means the person seeks to logically understand everything (a real paradox), wants a label and explanation for his experience, finds it difficult to be in the moment or go with the flow, does not switch off from internal dialogue, and is often less aware of sensory experience.

Your Unconscious has amazing processing capabilities compared with the conscious mind. Research shows the Unconscious Mind absorbs millions of bits of sensory information through the nervous system in any one second. (very contentious — “deals with” is more plausible) ………..

Your Unconscious Mind expresses itself through feelings, habits, and sensations in your body i.e. pain, light-headedness, muscle tension. So-called emotions such as happiness, sadness etc are the conscious mind labels assigned to unconscious processes such as electrical chemical reactions in the nervous system.

The emotion is felt in the body as sensations; we nominalise the experience in the body and talk about emotions — often losing touch with the true feeling.

Example of harnessing the unconscious communication for change — unconscious communication through pain sensation

Read details at ref795 — understanding your mind conscious and unconscious processing/ xxx

It involves a “Conversation with the Unconscious” as follows:
“Unconscious, for a yes response will you please increase the sensations in my lower back.”
I experienced a sharp increase in the pain. I thanked my unconscious for the signal and sensations returned to the level before I asked the question …..

It concludes —
The so-called problems in life are only there because the communication between the conscious and unconscious part of mind has not been effective!

Remember the conscious and unconscious mind do not exist inside your mind, the labels are given to package different process that occur in the nervous system.

ref739b1 Accelerated Mind Patterning (AMP) and Rapidly Accelerated Mind Patterning (RAMP)
Dr. Buffington developed the AMP process after studying Neuro-linguistic Programming.