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Contents:
Needs
EmotionsBuddhist

Nervous Systems

Anatomy
The Central Nervous Systems
The Peripheral Nervous Systems
Whole Brain Neuroplasticity
The Mind
Brain Format and Function
Enteric System
Memory
Neurolnogy — Motivation
A range of Senses
Epigenetics
Trauma Depresion, Anxiety, Addiction, PTSD
Empathy
Motivation
Traits from early nurture
The Limbic System
Gender Issues
Recovery
Reward System
Tribalism
Cells
The Mature Modsenseern Adult

To Top

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Humans have adapted to living in different climates, to regimes, to travel — and to becoming adept at making and using tools and weapons, developing a system of communication through symbols and sounds, and developing social, political and economic system — but also to perpetrating dreadful cruel behaviour.

We need to accept our Human Nature — as it has evolved — and acknowledge that all aspects of human nature have a function — Fear, Anger, jealousy, greed, cruelty, disruptive tribalism, etc.

Can we avoid the evil aspects of Humanity?

The Psychologist Oliver James visualised an ideal/Mature Human Adult as follows:

If you are this type it is relatively easy for you to become emotionally close to others. You are comfortable depending upon others and being depended upon by them, and don’t worry greatly about being alone or having others not accept us.

Adult romantic partners tend to be secure. When set a problem to solve with their partner, secure men are positive and supportive, trying to help rather than acting as a competitor or getting annoyed. Secure women are likely to seek emotional support from their man and to be happy to receive embraces or other physical expressions of affection and encouragement.

Secure couples have the least negative relationships of any combination of patterns – less critical, less conflict-ridden, more warm and friendly. The most common causes of rancour, like the man not spending enough time with the woman or disputes over the division of domestic labour, are less likely to be a problem. Followed over time, their relationships last longer and, if they include marriage, are less likely to end in divorce.

Such a person would be the beneficiary of sound genes, thoughtful nurture, a safe environment freedom from mental and physical ailments and addictions, etc. — This Utopia, even if wholly desirable, would take generations to achieve.

How would they be affected by: Poverty, Anti-social behaviour, Drugs, etc?

We have a limited lifespan — we reproduce with mixed genes — and thus we can evolve.

Each generation has to grow from a zygote — the single cell resulting from the fertilization of the female egg cell by the male sperm cell. The basic program for our development is in our individual DNA.


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The study of Epigenetics now indicates that the genetic instructions are altered by our experiences

From — ref 505
Epigenetics is providing explanations of how our diets, our exposure to toxins, our stress levels at work – even one-off traumatic events – might be subtly altering the genetic legacy we pass on to our children. It has opened up new avenues into explaining and curing illnesses that genes alone can’t explain, ranging from autism to cancer.
End — — ref 505

Also see — ref 697

ttt2 Awareness, the Mind
The Mind of a human being comes into existence and slowly becomes more Aware as they experience, develop and learn!.

Our Awareness is a combination of our Consciousness — what we see and hear, our feelings and moods — and inputs from the Unconscious — our store of personal experience, emotions, habits, competences, opinions, prejudices and beliefs.

Gustav Jung added the (Human) Collective Unconscious — ref748

This Collective Unconscious is described as that part of the mind — containing memories and impulses of which the individual is not aware — common to mankind as a whole and originating in the inherited structure of the brain.

The two most powerful functions of the developing Conscious Mind has are — ref738f:
1. The ability to imagine that which is not real
2. The ability to direct your focus.

So, we imagine our awareness through our senses can be supplemented by “data” from our sub/un-conscious mind — a useful “model” or “construct”.

Buddhist scholars imagined a “stream of consciousness” as the model of a link from sonsciousness to the sub-coscious — In is intuitively appealing. The names of the Moods and Emotions in the stream are Hell, Hunger, Instinct, Anger, Tranquillity, Rapture, Learning, and Realisation, and Helping.

They’re all present together, like so many ingredients in a stew. But at any given moment, depending on what you’re thinking or doing, or on what’s going on around you, you’ll experience one of these states on a priority basis (an intersting aside is that each element can have positive or negative aspects. This is a common feature in many models/conceptions – the best known of these being the Yin,Yang of Chinese Philosophy. Yin and Yang can be thought of as complementary (rather than opposing) forces).

We now know a lot about the biology and neurology of the “Mind”, but much remains to be understood, particularly for the interested lay-person. There is, for example, no agreement on the “Emotional Brain” — the Limbic System. However this should not deter us from a “functional model” that ignores brain structure and related models.

We have more understanding of that part of the brain and nervous system with respect to how the Autonomics System and its two modes of operation, which takes care of many of the bodily functions, both for “normal” responses and “demanding and threat” responses.

ttt3 Development — an outline

Each baby is totally dependent on care, and arrives into unique close and extended social conditions, subject to on-going changes. We inherit Genes, but we also inherit our Social Environ, Our Mother/Carer, Siblings, etc.

We have to learn to walk, talk, and so on, and in particular adapt to our social environment — early development is rapid but basic.

Oliver James in his book “They Fxxx you up” — reported on the effects of inadequate parenting, which can be perpetuated from Generation to Generation

The human genetic program provides sensitive periods for specific learning that will allow the child and adolescent to develop the various aspects of their unique personality and adapt to the current social environment. It may be that differences for each child in the duration and intensity of these genetic phases are crucial. The patterns of brain electro-chemistry created then are later brought to bear in choosing friends, lovers and professions, and in constantly re-creating the patterns of the past.

James described the creation of these patterns as “skill scripts” which we follow as if our lives were in an elaborate theatrical play without a plot.

As described by James, this is the period when the following developments take place:
Self Awareness 0-6 months
Attachments/Relationships 0-3 years
Conscience 3-6 years

Inappropriate early Nurture can lead to:–
• Personality Disorder — ref486
• Insecure Attachment (Relationship) to others — ref xxx
• Punitive or Weak Conscience (benign)

ttt3x1 personality first

In general parental care is critical, especially during the first six years. During this period the Mother normally has the main responsibility for nurturing the child (If the mother is not available as a specific Carer as the best equivalent is recommended).

Even so, the baby may be at risk from their carer/mother, now often isolated from the extended family, and under pressure to meet the “demands” of our market economies.

The fundamental problem (following that trauma of the birth) is the total dependence of the baby, twenty-four hours a day, resulting in an equally total loss of autonomy in the mother. Many mothers do not have someone else there to help them out when the grinding relentlessness of meeting the infant’s needs becomes too much. Post-natal depress may result.

The early weeks are a very delicate period in the mother’s life. She is emotionally fragile, vulnerable, yet the need to fit into the infant’s patterns feels like permanent jet-lag, with her sleep patterns going haywire. Worst of all, she has to expect the unexpected as regards the baby’s patterns.

The absence of family support means that the Mother is now more likely to be subject to more physical and mental stresses, and these have repercussions for the Child.

However, the over-attentive mother may pamper the baby to its detriment.

The Psychoanalyst Donald Winnicott found that the emotional empathy of an “Ordinary, Devoted Good-Enough mother ” is as critical to the infant’s well-being as food is to his physical health — Ref 602

A Case Study on Attachment based therapy was conducted b Van Den Boom) on 100 mothers with disturbed babies — Ref 414

When the babies were a few months old, fifty of the mothers received counselling sessions to increase their responsiveness and sensitivity to their disturbed babies. Up to this point these mothers tended to have become discouraged by their baby’s behaviour.

Van Den Boom taught techniques for soothing the baby, encouraged play and helped the mothers to connect emotionally.

Meanwhile the other fifty mothers and their irritable babies had received no help at all (That’s Science for you!).

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From — ref750 Personality & Violent Crime
Persons committing murder and other forms of violent crime are likely to exhibit a personality disorder (PD) of one type or another. Essentially any personality disorder can be associated with violent crime, with the possible exception of avoidant Personality Disorder.

With a focus on murder, clinical examples drawn from the crime literature and from the author’s personal interviews refl ect 14 varieties of personality disorder. Animal torture before adulthood is an important predictor of future violent (including sadistic) crime. Whereas many antisocial persons are eventually capable of rehabilitation, this is rarely the case with psychopathic or sadistic persons.
END — ref750 Personality & Violent Crime

From — ref749 attachment-theory-of-personality-disorder
An influential way of thinking about personality disorders stems from attachment theory. This theory is credited to John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth. Like object relations theory, attachment theory proposes that people develop internal representations of relationships through their interactions with early caregivers. These internal representations, or working models of relationships, then go on to influence:
1) Personality development,
2) Social interaction tendencies,
3) Expectations of the world and of other people and,
4) Strategies for regulating emotions.

50% of Individuals, even in “comfortable” western societies have insecure attachments.

An insecure attachment does not in itself constitute a personality disorder

However, when combined with other biological and environmental risk factors such as abuse, they may contribute to the development of a personality disorder.
End — a href=”https://www.mentalhelp.net/articles/attachment-theory-of-personality-disorder/” target=”_blank”>ref749 attachment-theory-of-personality-disorder

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Gender and Sexual Issues may also result from an non-empathetic up-bringing, both in early nurture and adolescence — Read More LLL

In the past public attitudes were greatly influenced by “Societal Norms”, often religous, but directed at morality.

Take Gender and Sexual Orientation — are two distinct aspects of our identity.

From — ref752 disorders of sex development — Intersex
Disorders of sex development (DSDs) are a group of rare conditions where the reproductive organs and genitals don’t develop as expected.

If you have a DSD, you’ll have a mix of male and female sexual characteristics (Five forms of DSD are described, and there is a list of support groups)

Advice for parents of older children

Sometimes a DSD may be diagnosed if an older child doesn’t develop normally in puberty. For example, your child may not start the normal puberty changes, or may start puberty but not get periods.

Speak to your GP if you have any concerns about your child’s development at puberty. They can refer your child to a specialist, usually a consultant in paediatric endocrinology or an adolescent gynaecologist.

A team of different healthcare professionals will work with you to understand your child’s condition, and offer you and your child support and advice.
End — ref752

Gender is personal (how we see ourselves), while sexual orientation is interpersonal (who we are physically, emotionally and/or romantically attracted to)

There is currently a widespread belief that a unified ‘masculine’ or ‘feminine’ personality turns out not to describe many people — It describes stereotypes to which we constantly compare ourselves and each other, but more people are ‘gender non-conforming’ than we generally realize.” — Read More at Gender Issue LLL

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The influences on Nurture and later life are generally complex and indistinct and the traits, although recognisable, are blurred.

How we respond to circumstances may arise from on-going awareness or from attitude, mood or temperament.

So, we experience life as Our Semses, Our Needs, and our complex of Memories (Conscious and U-nconscious) contend for Our Attention.

Our Senses also evolved to provide data for our complex Nervous Systems — partly “Conscious” through our Central Nervous System and partly through our Autonomic Nervous System, in order to:
• To deal with some safety issues and to provide appropriate reflex responses — there is a fast response system.
• To deal with the multi-tasking of running a complex organism — an automatic, mainly sub-consvcious system
• To deal with extracting “meaning” of what is being sensed, and decide what to retain in memory –
• To balance this data with the complex of information and competences from previous experiences, and current attitudes —
Read More at Early learning is rapid though elementary.

The ability to learn, has attached to it the imperatives to provide for our Needs.

ref58 Human Needs

Abraham Maslow devised “A Theory of Human Motivation” — ref58

He identified a comprehensive Hierarchy of as follows:
1. Biological and Physiological needs – air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep.
2. Safety needs – protection from elements, security, order, law, limits, stability, and freedom from fear.
3. Social Needs – belongingness, affection and love, – from work group, family, friends, romantic relationships — Tribalism
4. Esteem needs – achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance, prestige, self-respect, and respect from others.
5. Self-Actualization needs – realizing personal potential, self-fulfilment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences.

Clearly many are Complex Needs (Aspirations?, and many also particularly apply to certain individuals and in certain circumstances.

In his book “Hardwiring Happiness” by Rick Hanson he observed:

We have 3 core Needs/Operating Systems:
• Safety ——— Avoiding Harms
• Satisfaction — Using Rewards
• Connection —– Attaching/relating to others

These operating systems are defined by their function and not the evolved anatomy

Each operating system has its own set of abilities, and they can be running at the same time.

Each has two modes of responding to circumstances:
• The Responsive Mode — Controlled, Mindful
• The Reactive Mode — Alert, Stressed. Emotional — Insecure people more prone to this mode.

These are the circumstances of day to day living. They can give rise to emotions/moods that naturally give rise to the extremes of stress or contentment. These are much influenced by our experiences, from early nutrition, family life, “fortune” — hard to define!

Emotions have a major role in human life

From — ref 653
Emotions are more physiological than psychological.

Whether triggered from without or within, emotions produce major changes all through the body, most notably in muscle-tone, energy level, tone of voice, and facial expressions. They signal organs and muscle groups, accelerate or decelerate cardiovascular rates, and mute or exaggerate messages of pain, deprivation, and pleasure. They have enormous power to enhance, distort, or totally disrupt other mental processes. For instance, intense interest can make thoughts and ideas flow profusely, while shame makes it all but impossible to concentrate.

In general, only changes in the body or environment that produce emotion are noticed. Emotions are the path that highly selected bits of the world take into the self.

We scarcely experience the world apart from our emotional response to it.
End — ref 653

Avoiding harm seems to have evolved a Human Brain that has a negativity bias, tending to simulate —
• Velcro for negative experiences and
• Teflon for positive ones.

However, The dominant on-going Need seems to be for Satisfaction (Reward).

A typical Reward Cycle:

CCP187 — Ref466

The most important reward pathway in brain is the mesolimbic dopamine system — & ref717 and Ref291. Read More — ccc21 LLL

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ttt6
With a habit you are in control of your choices, with an addiction you are not in control of your choices.
 Addiction – there is a psychological/physical component; the person is unable to control the aspects of the addiction without help because of the mental or physical conditions involved.
 Habit – it is done by choice. The person with the habit can choose to stop, and will subsequently stop successfully if they want to. The psychological/physical component is not an issue as it is with an addiction. A habit may eventually develop into an addiction.

As already stated, we learn to walk, talk, and so on. as we develop physically and mentally —

CCP 112

Although learning is rapid and remarkable it does lack depth and sophistication – This indicates an inate App for each ability which updates and enhances with increases in capability. LLL1

This early learning is about becoming more competent through practice and application. Playing with toys is an essential part of learning co-ordination of senses and motor movements — providing new challenges as appropriate.

However what is described by The Psychologist Oliver James in his book “They Fxxx You Up” is about learning how Early Human Developments can be a precursor to Adult Personality Types — r492 and ref 484

His main focus is on emotional and social aspects, developed over 3 early stages — in the context of the child’s experiences, and in particular the responses of the mother or main carer!

Stage 1 Becoming self aware, and avoiding a personality disorder — 0 to 6 months
Stage 2 Developing how to Relate to others — 6 months to 3 years (The 4 categories below)
Stage 3 Realising a Conscience (morality) — 3 to 6 yrs (described as Benign, Weak, Punitve)

He points out An important aspect is that observation of how the child responses to basic activities is related to 4 later personality typres — in Oliver James’s jargon these are:
1. Secure
2. Avoidant
3. Clinger
4. Wobbler

This is described more fully in xxx “age Stages”. The point here is that it is a different form of learning t o develping a competence. It is regarded by Oliver James as creating a set of Personal Attitudes or Dispositions, which ofter persists but may be modified by later influences — such as a form of re-training.

More importantly by an early change of circumstances.

Olivers James wrote:

Although no one can directly remember their earliest experiences in infancy, it is back in this forgotten time that the origins of personality disorder and the weak self are found. The psychoanalyst Donald Winnicott claimed that it results from the care you receive in the first few months of life. Early care that lacks empathy creates an immature adult with arrested development, prone to the reckless and amoral acts of a young child, to the ‘me, me, me’ selfishness and inflated grandiosity found in the fantasy life of the toddler. But the cause of personality

Overall, there is no doubt that newborn babies pose a serious threat to the mental health of many mothers — As a society we do far too little to counter that threat.

Deprivation in infancy does not cause Personality Disorder; rather, it creates the vulnerability. The type of later childcare and family script that are experienced affect the extent to which the potential remains dormant or finds expression, and so does the kind of society in which the child grows up.
Of these various experiences after infancy, neglect and physical and sexual abuse in childhood are the greatest predictors of Person¬ality Disorder.

Each baby is totally dependant on care, and arrives into unique close and extended social conditions — their, non-inherent nurture affects:
• Their sense of self
• How they connect to others
• How they realise moral values
• How they cope with their environments

See — 681 ref 681!

Proper Nurture should be a basis for a Caring Society — see xxx

In order to prosper our basic “Needs” must be met:

Maslow’s ‘Hierarchy of Needs’ (From 1943 paper “A Theory of Human Motivation”) is often presented as a five-level pyramid, with higher needs coming into focus only once lower — the more basic needs — are met.


CCP210

Clearly some are Complex Needs, and will vary a great deal between individuals.

Maslow called the bottom four levels of the pyramid ‘deficiency needs’ because a person does not feel anything if they are met, but becomes anxious if they are not. Thus, physiological needs such as eating, drinking, and sleeping are deficiency needs, as are safety needs, social needs such as friendship and sexual intimacy, and ego needs such as self-esteem and recognition.

In contrast, Maslow called the fifth level of the pyramid a ‘growth need’ because it enables a person to ‘self-actualize’ or reach his fullest potential as a human being. Once a person has met his deficiency needs, he can turn his attention to self-actualization.

This bias evolved to help ancient animals survive, but today it makes us feel needlessly frazzled, worried, irritated, lonely, inadequate, and blue — from ref 650 — Book “Hardwiring Happiness by Rick Hanson

At Adolescence Brain Changes are involved in establishing a new relationship with the family — and potential independence.

The genetic instructions provide stages when particular developments take place — ref 413 and “Age Stages”.

The American Institute for Learning and Human Development has listed twelve stages of a Human Life — ref 412

Certain stages may be particularly significant —
• 0-6 years for human relationships, conscience and personality
• Adolescence for sorting out relationships, roles and reviewing life — including taking risks
• Maturity — possibly realizing Wisdom

What we do know is we humans can Learn — good and bad habits and skill. We can also Unlearn through neglect or determined effort. This biological basis is known:

Learning is reversible and so is malleable.

The first few years of a child’s life are a time of rapid brain growth. At birth, every neuron in the cerebral cortex has an estimated 2,500 synapses; by the age of three, this number has grown to 15,000 synapses per neuron.

The average adult, however, has about half that number of synapses — Because as we gain new experiences, some connections are strengthened while others are eliminated. This process is known as synaptic pruning. Neurons that are used frequently develop stronger connections and those that are rarely or never used eventually die. By developing new connections and pruning away weak ones, the brain is able to adapt to the changing environment.

Two changes associated with learning can occur, shown graphically as follows:

CCP197 How nerve impulses travel — ref 593

Myelin Production influenced by Neuron Electrical Activity produce fatty myelin sheaths and wrap them around the axons many times. This sheath greatly enhances the speed of the electrical signal along the axon.

However, learning, use of memory, etc require much more complex constructs. Previously, myelin was considered a simple process, but now research shows that it is a very complex and vital for this coordination and timing. Myelin, and with it the speed and timing of circuits, is altered during normal learning and Whole Brain Neuro-Plasticity — Ref 597.

Many different kinds of learning produce complex alterations in myelin amount, shape, size, pattern and distribution. These changes are part of neuroplasticity for many kinds of learning, not just the habit motor type. It is surprising how rapidly these changes can occur. It was previously thought that the only changes in myelin in the adult were damaging or responding to damage. Now, it has been shown that there is dynamic active modeling and re-modeling of myelin in white matter in children and adults with learning.

We each have Needs, selected in terms of individual traits from a complex of Human Needs — and they give rise to Individual Motivations

CCP 210 ref 58a

In order to function and survive we must be aware of:
o Our Environment
o Our Bodies
o Our Mind

We should then respond with appropriate actions — Aware in this context means anything that elicits a response.

Two systems control all the normal functioning of a human organism:
o The Nervous System — a Central nervous system (CNS) and a Peripheral one (PNS)
o The Endocrine (Hormone) System

The nervous and endocrine systems often act together to regulate physiology. Indeed, some neurons function as endocrine cells. The hypothalamus links the Nervous system to the Endocrine system via the pituitary gland.


CCP204

The CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord, including cranial and central nerves. The brain is the centre of the nervous system. The spinal cord and nerves are the connections, like the switches/gates and wires in a computer.

The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) is subdivided into:
o Sensory-somatic system — providing awareness and movement
o Autonomic system – that involuntary parts of the body, including the muscles of the heart, the digestive system, and the glands.

The PNS has::
o Sensory neurons running from stimulus receptors that inform the CNS of the stimuli
o Motor neurons running from the CNS to the muscles and glands – called effectors

The parasympathetic mode of the Autonomic system is a homeostatic “housekeeping” system. Much of its resources may be transferred to the Sympathetic mode when required

The sympathetic mode of the Autonomic system is designed for fight-or-flight reactions in an emergency. Activation of the sympathetic system is usually general as a single neutron triggers all activating neurons.


CCP212 ref 262 Autonomic System

Buddhist Philosophers envisaged a stream of consciousness as a series of moods, notions, feelings — Ref 636

In a simpler version, the names of the Moods and Emotions are Hell, Hunger, Instinct, Anger, Tranquillity, Rapture, Learning, and Realisation, Helping, and Awakening.

They’re all present together, like so many ingredients in a stew. But at any given moment, depending on what you’re thinking or doing, or on what’s going on around you, you’ll experience one of these states on a priority basis. It will leap to the forefront of your consciousness, and overshadow the others, but only for a while. One state changes to another, many times per day (even when you’re sleeping).

Each one, other than “Awakening”, can have positive or negative aspects. This is a common feature in many models/conceptions – the best known of these being the Yin,Yang of Chinese Philosophy. Yin and Yang can be thought of as complementary (rather than opposing) forces.

See comments on “Stream of Consciousness” at — ref739

From — ref735

William James was trained as a medical doctor at Harvard University and became generally recognized as the first psychologist in America and his first and arguably most significant written work was “The Principles of Psychology” published in 1889. James’s later philosophical work always retained a certain tendency toward the psychological and many of his core ideas were first expressed in this early work.

James was the first to describe consciousness as a stream – a continuous succession of experiences. He saw the most significant function of consciousness to be the role it played in selecting what to pay attention to.

James saw the stream of consciousness as an unending parade of thoughts, feelings, images, ideas, sensations, conceptions, emotions, etc. that appear before our conscious awareness and then pass away.

This stream of consciousness is one in which the last thought we had is recognized to be part of a stream that our current thought is also a part of. In fact, all of our thoughts, yesterday and everyday are recognized to be part of that same river of awareness. According to James our cognitive experiences overlap so that each experience has a “fringe” in front and behind it. In this way, our present experience is always most obvious to us, but the tail end of the last few experiences that we had are still trailing off and the leading edge of our next few experiences are already entering into our awareness.

Thinking is a goal oriented process and, as James envisioned it, a great deal of what propels our thinking forward is the feeling of satisfaction that we get as we perceive our next thought taking us closer to our goal.

End — ref735

From — ref738 — Stream of Consciousness Encyclopedia.com

In the same individual a second consciousness may simultaneously flow, consisting of its own distinct states of consciousness

Comment: This may be the way in which we may suddenly “realise” something.

End — ref738

(methodology note From — ref737 — Cognition, Fringe Consciousness, and the Legacy of William James.

James’s work, especially his Principles of Psychology (1890), attracted immediate attention. Thinkers otherwise as different as Edmund Husserl (whose notion of the «horizon” came directly from James) and Bertrand Russell were much in his debt. But within a few years of James’s death, behaviorism seized power in the English-speaking world. For more than half a century, introspection was proscribed as “unscientific:’
James’s star rose again with the cognitive revolution as the explicit study of consciousness gradually returned, and today James is probably the single most cited person in the cognitive literature on consciousness. But decades of unopposed behaviorist propaganda have had.their effect. Even now most researchers take introspection to be a dubious research technique.)

Our reliance on the human “Reward Systems” dominates much of human behaviour, much of this in addictive behaviour:

CCP 85

But this is fundamental to Our Nature — It has positive and negative aspects.

Failure to realise basic Needs, coping with the resultant and other other stresses makes us vulnerable to traumas

xxx
• The Early Years — completing brain structure and utilising motivation to learn
• Adolescence & Puberty — reviewing
xxx

CCP 112


CCP 6

Adolescent Brains are work in progress Ref 436

What the researchers have found has shed light on how the brain grows and when it grows. It was thought at one time that the foundation of the brain’s architecture was laid down by the time a child is five or six. Indeed, 95 percent of the structure of the brain has been formed by then. But these researchers have discovered changes in the structure of the brain that appear relatively late in child development.

The development of the infant’s Limbic system (Emotional Brain), which processes and stores emotional experiences long before the child has the language and memory skills to consciously remember and discuss emotions. The process of Attachment described below may be part of the development whereby the Cortex assesses “risk” and affects how an individual Reacts — ref 655

If the original limbic “imprint”, or ‘basic settings’, were undesirable and painful, it is possible to consciously, and with patience, create an alternative later on in life.


CCP 111

(A variety of nuclei and brain regions are important in emotional functioning. In this chapter, only a few of these regions are discussed. In some respects, many might argue that such structures as the hippocampus should not be considered part of the limbic system because of its involvement with memory. Indeed, it has become increasingly fashionable to decry even the use of the term limbic system, as there are simply so many diverse cerebral regions involved in the control and mediation of emotional functioning. Even by the most liberal of anatomical definitions there can be no structural basis for the concept when all such nuclei are considered. This is not the case, however, in regard to the highly interactional anatomical and functional system maintained by the amygdala, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and septal nuclei. Therefore, I encourage continued use of the term, particularly in that to most people limbic system implies that part of the “old” brain concerned with emotional functioning — ref 662

The basic program for our development is in our individual DNA. However, we have to learn and practice how to walk, talk, and so on, and in particular adapt to our social environment — Through “Attachment”, which may be associated with the early functioning of the Limbic System.

CCP

Learning relies on Neuroplasticity — ref 23

CCP 124

The first few years of a child’s life are a time of rapid brain growth. At birth, every neuron in the cerebral cortex has an estimated 2,500 synapses; by the age of three, this number has grown to 15,000 synapses per neuron.

The average adult, however, has about half that number of synapses — Because as we gain new experiences, some connections are strengthened while others are eliminated. This process is known as synaptic pruning. Neurons that are used frequently develop stronger connections and those that are rarely or never used eventually die. By developing new connections and pruning away weak ones, the brain is able to adapt to the changing environment.

At Adolescence Brain Changes are involved in establishing a new relationship with the family — and independence.

See — “Age Stages”

Reproduction seems to provide a means of evolutionary changes — but how, see ref 505 Epigenetics for beginners

This bias evolved to help ancient animals survive, but today it makes us feel needlessly frazzled, worried, irritated, lonely, inadequate, and blue — from ref 650 — Book “Hardwiring Happiness by Rick Hanson

The Anatomy is of course important as Toxic Stresses and Trauma can damage the performance of the Nervous Systems.

Affect of Trauma

If our limbic system was repeatedly activated by threatening and frightening experiences then its development may have been disrupted. This may mean that it becomes HYPERSENSITIVE to perceived threat AND OVER- REACTIVE to perceived threat — ref 657

Importantly, the limbic system may cause us to OVER-REACT TO PERCEIVED THREATS THAT WE ONLY PERCEIVE ON AN UNCONSCIOUS LEVEL. For example, if someone in authority speaks to us in a manner that, on an unconscious level, reminds us of how an abusive parent used to speak to us, we might become extremely anxious, frightened or aggressive (aggression here would represent an unconscious drive to defend ourselves).

The disrupted part of the brain can begin to heal itself through re-learning factors including:

• Avoidance of excessive stress
• Strong and reliable emotional support
• Self-compassion,
• A safe and stable environment
• Mindfulness meditation
• Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy (emdr)

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Human Needs
Our Complex of Needs and Desires

From — ref58 Human Needs

Abraham Maslow, in his “A Theory of Human Motivation”, identified a comprehensive Hierarchy of as follows:
1. Biological and Physiological needs – air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep.
2. Safety needs – protection from elements, security, order, law, limits, stability, and freedom from fear.
3. Social Needs – belongingness, affection and love, – from work group, family, friends, romantic relationships — Tribalism
4. Esteem needs – achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance, prestige, self-respect, and respect from others.
5. Self-Actualization needs – realizing personal potential, self-fulfilment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences.

Clearly many are Complex Needs, and many also particularly apply to certain individuals and in certain circumstances.

End — Needs

From — Ref2002 Hardwiring Happiness by Rick Hanson
We have 3 core Needs or Operating Systems:
• Safety ——— Avoiding Harms
• Satisfaction — Using our Rewards
• Connection —– Attachment to others

These operating systems are defined by their function and not the evolved anatomy
End — Ref2002 Hardwiring Happiness by Rick Hanson

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Human Emotions

Emotions have a major role in human life

The Limbic System, described by some as the “Emotional Brain”” is also the path for more than a trillion bits of information about the world that bombard our senses at any given moment.

From — Ref 361 Psychology of motivation (ref361)

The Limbic system plays a key role in the regulation of emotions – and it also processes memory..

These two states, emotions and memories, interconnect to form emotional memory, which produces the child’s responses to situations, experiences and learning.

A number of factors can significantly impair Limbic System function Psychological and/or Emotional Trauma.

Central connections from the Limbic system (forebrain, hypothalamus, and brain stem) regulate the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.

When not functioning properly due to injury or impairment, the limbic system becomes hypersensitive and begins to react to stimuli that it would usually disregard as not representing a danger to the body.

Figure 212

End — Ref 361 Psychology of motivation (ref361)

From — ref741a The Function of emotions (and data selection)

Emotions play an important role in how we think and behave. The emotions we feel each day can compel us to take action and influence the decisions we make about our lives, both large and small.

In order to truly understand emotions, it is important to understand the three critical components of an emotion:
• A subjective component (how we experience the emotion),
• A physiological component (how our bodies react to the emotion),
• An expressive component (how we behave in response to the emotion).

These different elements can play a role in the function and purpose of our emotional responses.

• Emotions Can Motivate Us to Take Action
• Emotions Help Us Survive, Thrive, and Avoid Danger
• Emotions Can Help Us Make Decisions
• Emotions Allow Other People to Understand Us
• Emotions Allow Us to Understand Others
End — ref741a Function of emotions (and data selection) < But, it's not always critical, and much more suchible ref757 The function of emotions

A similar pattern disruption process monitors bodily functions. Changes in states like pain, pleasure, hunger, thirst, body temperature, and respiratory rate trigger emotions.

Whether triggered from without or within, emotions produce major changes all through the body, most notably in muscle-tone, energy level, tone of voice, and facial expressions.

They signal organs and muscle groups, accelerate or decelerate cardiovascular rates, and mute or exaggerate messages of pain, deprivation, and pleasure.

They have enormous power to enhance, distort, or totally disrupt other mental processes. For instance, intense interest can make thoughts and ideas flow profusely, while shame makes it all but impossible to concentrate.

The Components of Emotion are:
• Arousal
• Motivation
• Feelings

Arousal

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Abnormally high levels produce over-stimulation, obsessions, compulsions, insomnia, or mania.

Periods of low arousal permit relaxation, letting go, or numbing out.

Abnormally low levels of arousal create depression, muted emotions, or hypersomnia.

End — ref 653 Emotions and Awareness

Motivation

If the change stimulating the emotion seems promising, the usual response is interest or enjoyment, which motivate various approach behaviors to “sense more, learn more, get more.”

If the change seems dangerous, anger, fear, or disgust emerges with motivation to attack (devalue) or avoid.

Motivation is the most important component of emotions. We cannot understand ourselves or other people without understanding motivation.

We almost always fail to act in our best interests when we ignore motivation.

Types of Motivation:
• Those that foster growth and empowerment.
• Those that have survival importance but are scarcely helpful in negotiating the complexities of most modern problems

(Some of the examples given require a sensible re-definition of conventional understanding)

Feelings

The subjective experience of emotions—what they feel like—dominates our conceptions about them.

Trying to understand or change emotions through focus on how they feel is like trying to understand and change intestinal gas through focus on discomfort.

From — ref741a The Function of emotions (and data selection)

Emotions play an important role in how we think and behave. The emotions we feel each day can compel us to take action and influence the decisions we make about our lives, both large and small.

In order to truly understand emotions, it is important to understand the three critical components of an emotion:
• A subjective component (how we experience the emotion),
• A physiological component (how our bodies react to the emotion),
• An expressive component (how we behave in response to the emotion).

These different elements can play a role in the function and purpose of our emotional responses.

Our emotions can be short-lived, such as a flash of annoyance at a co-worker, or long-lasting, such as enduring sadness over the loss of a relationship. But why exactly do we experience emotions? What role do they serve?

• Emotions Can Motivate Us to Take Action
• Emotions Help Us Survive, Thrive, and Avoid Danger
• Emotions Can Help Us Make Decisions
• Emotions Allow Other People to Understand Us
• Emotions Allow Us to Understand Others

Help Us Make Decisions! — Even in situations where we believe our decisions are guided purely by logic and rationality, emotions play a key role. Emotional intelligence, or our ability to understand and manage emotions, has been shown to play an important role in decision-maki

End — ref741a Function of emotions (and data selection)

From — ref741c What are Emotions Structure and Function of Emotions

This paper attempts to coin a stipulative definition of “emotions” to determine their functions. In this sense, “emotion” is a complex phenomenon consisting of an accurate (reliable) determination of the state of affairs in relation to the state of the subject and specific “points of adaptation”.

Apart from the cognitive aspect, this phenomenon also includes behavior, physiological changes and expressions (facial expression, voice, posture), feelings, and “execution” of emotions in the nervous system. Emotions fulfill informative, calibrating, identifying, existential, and motivating functions. Emotions capture the world as either positive or negative, important or unimportant, and are used to determine and assign weightings (to set up a kind of hierarchy). They emerge automatically (involuntarily), are difficult (or hardly possible) to control and are (to some extent) influenced by culture.

Conclusion Taking into account the general considerations outlined above, a stipulative definition of “emotion” can be coined. I understand the term “emotion” as a complex phenomenon accurately (reliably) describing the (anticipated) state of affairs, which is reliable in terms of the state of the subject and specific “points of adaptation” (standards).

“Emotion” is functional, it emerges automatically (involuntarily), it is difficult (or hardly possible) to control and is (to some extent) influenced by culture. Emotions go hand in hand with perceptive, intellectual, and memory processes; the beneficiaries of emotions are the subjects of emotions and, to put it metaphorically, the replicators when considering the final element of maintaining stability in nature.

Emotions also perform existential, identifying, calibrating, and motivating functions. Emotions capture the world as either positive or negative, important or unimportant, and are used to determine and assign weightings (prioritize). They are a kind of gestalt from the cognitive perspective (at the level of conscious feelings), actions (behavior), physiological changes, expression, and the executor (the nervous system).

End — ref741c What are Emotions Structure and Function of Emotions

See also:– ref741b Purpose of Emotions

From — motivation-and-emotion (ref360)

Motivation is the “arousal, direction and persistence of a person’s behaviour”.

Most theorists who proposed their own explanation of motivation believe that any learned behaviour cannot be executed unless it is energized. Thus, motivation is important in performing all kinds of behaviour. Also, this means that any changes in motivation reflect on an individual’s behaviour.

What is Emotion?

Emotion is different from “feelings” because feelings subjectively represent emotions, which means that feelings are only private to the person.

Also, emotion is distinguished from “mood” based on the period of time that they are present; a mood lasts longer than an emotion.

Interchangeably used with emotion, “affect” is the experience of emotion, and is associated with how the emotion is expressed (as seen on facial expressions or hand gestures).

Basic emotions to possess motivational properties of their own. For example, happiness motivates a person to achieve better performance.

Emotions is a reward or punishment for a specific motivated behaviour.
End — motivation-and-emotion (ref360)

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Buddhist

From — ref739

Early Buddhist scriptures describe the “stream of consciousness” (Pali; viññāna-sota) where it is referred to as the Mind Stream.[

The practice of mindfulness, which is about being aware moment-to-moment of one’s subjective conscious experience[8] aid one to directly experience the “stream of consciousness” and to gradually cultivate self-knowledge and wisdom.[

Buddhist teachings describe the continuous flow of the “stream of mental and material events” that include sensory experiences (i.e., seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, touch sensations, or a thought relating to the past, present or the future) as well as various mental events that get generated, namely, feelings, perceptions and intentions/behaviour.

These mental events are also described as being influenced by other factors such as attachments and past conditioning. Further, the moment-by-moment manifestation of the “stream of consciousness” is described as being affected by physical laws, biological laws, psychological laws, volitional laws, and universal laws

The Mind Stream of consciousness are a series of moods, notions, feelings — Ref 636

In a simpler version, the names of the Moods and Emotions are Hell, Hunger, Instinct, Anger, Tranquillity, Rapture, Learning, and Realisation, Helping, and Awakening.

They’re all present together, like so many ingredients in a stew. But at any given moment, depending on what you’re thinking or doing, or on what’s going on around you, you’ll experience one of these states on a priority basis. It will leap to the forefront of your consciousness, and overshadow the others, but only for a while. One state changes to another, many times per day (even when you’re sleeping).

Each one, other than “Awakening”, can have positive or negative aspects. This is a common feature in many models/conceptions – the best known of these being the Yin,Yang of Chinese Philosophy. Yin and Yang can be thought of as complementary (rather than opposing) forces.

Hell: Whenever something terrible or even disagreeable happens, you get upset or distraught. It is manifest in depression, anxiety, fear and other dis-ease. It’s the worst state to inhabit, beyond reason and passion alike. This mood has given rise to a sort of creativity.

Craving: This refers to craving, obsession, addiction. However the desire to do things is an important driving force for most people – and is a sore loss during depression. Motivation is a complex aspect of this mood (and other moods).

Instincts: These are given to you by your bodily nature, and are natural, but can become excessive – See the section on Needs.

Anger: people seem constantly enraged; others cranky. Others are argumentative or hypercritical, arrogant or sadistic. Anger can provide motivation to deal with unfairness, etc.

Tranquillity: This is a peaceful state in which your mind is un-perturbed, and a relief from anxiety, etc. – achievable through meditation or self-hypnosis.

Rapture: This is a state of sudden happiness, or even ecstasy. It is the most joyous mood, but for that very reason it does not last. Can be induced by exciting events or artificially by alcohol or drugs.

Learning: In this state you are exercising your cognitive skills, flexing your intellectual muscles. Whatever you’re up to, your thinking mind is engaged and in high gear

Realisation: Realisation means discovery, creativity, invention, and connection. It is related to a craving for attainment and occurs during the development of competence. Quite often what you are seeking can occur while you are having a break, or during sleep or sleepless episodes.

Helping: The helping state of mind applies to good parenting, teaching, doctoring and nursing, etc.#

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Neurology

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Memory

More than a trillion bits of information about the world bombard our senses at any given moment. To select the small amounts it can process from this constant onslaught of data, the brainformfnuses what can be described as “pattern disruption.” Any significant disruption of familiar sensory patterns triggers a biological response, commonly called emotion — ref 653

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Anatomy

The human body can be thought of as a composite of 12 systems — Ref 528:

o Skeletal
o Articular – allows movement between bones
o Muscular
o Nervous
o Circulatory
o Integumentary – the skin and its appendages
o Respiratory
o Alimentary
o Urinary
o Reproductive
o Lymphatic – part of the circulatorion and immune system,
o Endocrine – regulate tissues by secretions directly into the circulation
Two of the 12 systems, the nervous system and the endocrine system, are responsible for control over all of the others so as to maintain the relatively simple stable environment required for normal cell functions:
o The Nervous System

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The Nervous Systems

mmm
Humans are the result of development over many generations

Two systems control all the normal functioning of a human organism:
o The Nervous System — a Central nervous system (CNS) and a Peripheral one (PNS)
o The Endocrine (Hormone) System

The nervous and endocrine systems often act together to regulate physiology. Indeed, some neurons function as endocrine cells. The hypothalamus links the Nervous system to the Endocrine system via the pituitary gland.

These systems:
• Sense your external and internal surroundings
• Communicate information between your brain and spinal cord and other tissues
• Coordinate voluntary movements
• Coordinate and regulate involuntary functions like breathing, heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature.

The CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord, including cranial and central nerves. The brain is the centre of the nervous system. The spinal cord and nerves are the connections, like the switches/gates and wires in a computer.

The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) is subdivided into:
o Sensory-somatic system — providing awareness and movement
o Autonomic system – that involuntary parts of the body, including the muscles of the heart, the digestive system, and the glands.

The PNS has::
o Sensory neurons running from stimulus receptors that inform the CNS of the stimuli
o Motor neurons running from the CNS to the muscles and glands – called effectors

The parasympathetic mode of the Autonomic system is a homeostatic “housekeeping” system. Much of its resources may be transferred to the Sympathetic mode when required

The sympathetic mode of the Autonomic system is designed for fight-or-flight reactions in an emergency. Activation of the sympathetic system is usually general as a single neutron triggers all activating neurons.

Central connections from the Limbic system (forebrain, hypothalamus, and brain stem) regulate the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.

The limbic system plays a key role as the emotional regulator and it also processes memory. These two states, emotions and memories, interconnect to form emotional memory, which produces the child’s responses to situations, experiences and learning. A number of factors can significantly impair Limbic System function Psychological and/or Emotional Trauma.

When not functioning properly due to injury or impairment, the limbic system becomes hypersensitive and begins to react to stimuli that it would usually disregard as not representing a danger to the body.


Figure 191

Nerves carry signals to and from different areas of the nervous system as well as between the nervous system and other tissues and organs – thus exerting point-to-point control through nerves, similar to sending messages by conventional telephone. Nervous control is electrical in nature and fast.

Nerves are divided into four classes:
o Cranial nerves connect your sense organs (eyes, ears, nose, mouth) to your brain
o Central nerves connect areas within the brain and spinal cord
o Peripheral nerves connect the spinal cord with your limbs
o Autonomic nerves connect the brain and spinal cord with your organs (heart, stomach, intestines, blood vessels, etc.)

Transmission of Nerve Signals – there are two distinct types of connections: chemical and electrical.

A neuron is a nerve cell that is the basic building block of the nervous system. Neurons are specialized nerve cells that are responsible for communicating information in both chemical and electrical forms. There are many different types of neurons in the body, and they’re classed by the direction in which they send information. Neurons release chemicals known as neurotransmitters for dispatch to the other neurons.

A “gate” called a synapse provides the controlled access between the transmitting and the receiving neuron – typically a muscle neuron

CP124a

Different types of neurons are responsible for different tasks in the human body:
o Sensory, or afferent, neurons respond to touch, sound, and light, and carry the sensory information to the central nervous system.
o Motor neurons transmit information from the brain to the muscles of the body.
o Inter-neurons are responsible for communicating information between different neurons in the body.

The electro-chemical signal released by a particular neurotransmitter may be such as to encourage to the receiving cell to also fire, or to inhibit or prevent it from firing

Different neurotransmitters tend to act as:

o Excitatory – such as Acetylcholine, glutamate, aspartate, noradrenaline, histamine) or
o Inhibitory – such as GABA, glycine, seratonin), while some (e.g. dopamine) may be either.

If a neuron responds to a stimulus, its axon sends an all-or-nothing electrical signal called an action potential down to its axonal terminal. Action potentials are the way the brain receives, processes, and conveys information.

Actually all the functions of the body depend on these neurotransmitters like heart beats when it receives signals from the brain. Similarly breathing of the lungs and process of digestion in the stomach all the things happen when they receive certain nerve impulses from the brain. Neurotransmitters also affect an individual’s mood, weight, sleep etc. some of the examples of neurotransmitters are as follows.


CP125

The Neural System is partly based on a Reward/Inhibit cycle —

Al signal released by a particular neurotransmitter may be such as to encourage to the receiving cell to also fire, or to inhibit or prevent it from firing.

Stimulation of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system prepares the body for emergencies: for “fight or flight” (and, perhaps, enhances the memory of the event that triggered the response).

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The Nervous Systems plus


Whole Brain Neuroplasticity — ref 597 ccc12

Myelin neuroplasticity is the way a brain makes lasting alterations of its own complex circuits when responding to experience.

Neuroplasticity mechanisms are responsible for most learning. It was once thought that neuroplasticity used a simple mechanism of strengthening synapses when firing frequently—the more firing, the stronger the synapse. This was called long term potentiation or LTP. In the past several years, more and more varied mechanisms have been discovered. Recent research shows that most brain activity, in fact, occurs with rapid millisecond communication in wide networks around the brain. This rapid circuit uses many completely different mechanisms of neuroplasticity at the same time.

A vast array of mechanisms have been discovered for neuroplastic changes at synapses. In fact, large circuits engage in simultaneous varied mechanisms at synapses across the brain (See Post). There is no current way to explain these global whole brain phenomenon with extremely intricate molecular processes in many places at once. Another unanswered question is how the brain arranges for diverse large and small circuits to organize speeds of signals so that multiple inputs arrive in sync and decisions can be made at synapses. Recent research shows complex variations in myelin patterns and shapes provide large-scale coordination of circuit speeds. This research shows myelin facilitation of whole brain neuroplasticity.

This most recent dramatic example of neuroplasticity shows, again, how the brain will alter itself to provide functions that once were thought to only exist in a specific region. Neuroplasticity creates new brain cells, new synapses and changes how regions function.

CCP153 — ref 106

Two changes associated with learning can occur, shown graphically as follows:


CCP197 How nerve impulses travel — ref 593

With myelin, the electrical signal rapidly jumps between nodes with long stretches of insulated


CCP196 — Long term potentition ref 590

However, learning, use of memory, etc require much more complex constructs, as explained in the following:

Many different kinds of learning produce complex alterations in myelin amount, shape, size, pattern and distribution. These changes are part of neuroplasticity for many kinds of learning, not just the habit motor type. It is surprising how rapidly these changes can occur. It was previously thought that the only changes in myelin in the adult were damaging or responding to damage. Now, it has been shown that there is dynamic active modeling and remodeling of myelin in white matter in children and adults with learning. This includes re consolidation of memory. The alterations in myelin occur through oligodendrocyte stem cells that wander throughout the brain along blood vessels and then stop to differentiate into particular types of oligodendrotyes to make specific types of myelin. ref 597 later

Whole Brain Neuro-PlasticityRef 597 xxx

In order to have coherent circuits functioning at large distances across multiple regions of the brain, the timing of individual neuronal electrical currents have to be very accurately in sync. The regulation of the timing and the strength and speed of currents in specific neuronal loops are vital factors in neuro-plasticity mechanisms.

Previously, myelin was considered a simple process, but now research shows that it is a very complex and vital for this coordination and timing. Myelin, and with it the speed and timing of circuits, is altered during normal learning and neuro-plasticity.

Like other aspects of neuroplasticity, such as regulating synapses, there is a vast array of mechanisms involved in myelin production. Studies of the ways white matter changes during neuroplasticity are just beginning.

Many different kinds of learning produce complex alterations in myelin amount, shape, size, pattern and distribution. These changes are part of neuroplasticity for many kinds of learning, not just the habit motor type. It is surprising how rapidly these changes can occur. It was previously thought that the only changes in myelin in the adult were damaging or responding to damage. Now, it has been shown that there is dynamic active modeling and re-modeling of myelin in white matter in children and adults with learning. This includes re consolidation of memory. The alterations in myelin occur through oligodendrocyte stem cells that wander throughout the brain along blood vessels and then stop to differentiate into particular types of oligodendrotyes to make specific types of myelin.

The junction of a neuron and oligodendrocyte that forms myelin is vastly complex—much more complex even that synapses and neuro muscular junctions. There are many stages that have to precisely timed and executed. It is necessary to coordinate huge amounts of material and then build precise shapes. It has to be spaced exactly with all the correct placement of ion channels. The enormous structure has to be maintained sometimes for a lifetime.

Once again, we must ask where the direction lies for stem cells wandering all over the brain constantly building and updating myelin of particular types to keep speeds in sync for neuroplasticity. No one can consider this a random process. This is another example of intelligent communication between a vast number of cells simultaneously all over the brain.

All of this is correlated with mental activity.

To start

Synapses and memory storage — See — ref 16

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SEARCHING

Testing ttachment Theory

does prefrontal cortex affect limbic brain training

does prefrontal cortex affect limbic brain
679

Does prefrontal cortex affect limbic

Prefrontal cortex & Limbic System

676

What replaced the Limbic System

674 Furthermore, limbic structural abnormalities are considered common in adolescent patients with depression. For instance, smaller hippocampal volumes have been compared to healthy controls, which may have been attributed to poor treatment during childhood.

671 Not a functionally unified system (2016) collectively we can think of the limbic system as the centre for emotional responsiveness, motivation, memory formation and integration, olfaction, and the mechanisms to keep ourselves safe. These are broad strokes to be sure, which is not to suggest that the neo-cortex is not involved in these functions, but these are the focal activities of the limbic system.

The amygdala, hippocampus, and hypothalamus are considered the main limbic structures of clinical relevance to the practising psychotherapist. There is also the very important hub of information transfer, the thalamus, which feeds the limbic system with sensory input.

Damage to Limbic System 667 668 669

668

667

Although the term Limbic System only originated in the 1940s, some neuroscientists, including Joseph LeDoux, have suggested that the concept of a functionally unified limbic system should be abandoned as obsolete because it is grounded mainly in historical concepts of brain anatomy that are no longer accepted as accurate.[5]

Function
The structures of the limbic system are involved in motivation, emotion, learning, and memory. The limbic system is where the subcortical structures meet the cerebral cortex.[1] The limbic system operates by influencing the endocrine system and the autonomic nervous system.
The limbic system is also tightly connected to the prefrontal cortex. Some scientists contend that this connection is related to the pleasure obtained from solving problems.
The limbic system is often classified as a “cerebral structure”. This structure is closely linked to olfaction, emotions, drives, autonomic regulation, memory, and pathologically to encephalopathy, epilepsy, psychotic symptoms, cognitive defects.[12]
The functional relevance of the limbic system has proven to serve many different functions such as affects/emotions, memory, sensory processing, time perception, attention, consciousness, instincts, autonomic/vegetative control, and actions/motor behavior. Some of the disorders associated with the limbic system are epilepsy and schizophrenia.[13]

Limbic System, and the Neocortex. 663-6

The Limbic System & the Unconscious

Limbic system at birth

http://www.birthintobeing.com/the_limbic_imprint

http://www.birthintobeing.com/limbic_imprint

Infancy & the limbic system

“what is actually damaged in the nervous system”
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Somatic NS
https://www.laserspineinstitute.com/back_problems/spinal_anatomy/central_nervous/somatic/
https://www.health24.com/Lifestyle/Healthy-Nerves/heres-how-alcohol-messes-with-your-nervous-system-20160509
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https://www.apa.org/helpcenter/stress-body.aspx

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“causes of limbic system disorders”

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“The function of emotions”

ref 653

• Arousal (energy)
• Motivation
• Feelings

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“what damages the nervous system”

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https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/healthlibrary/conditions/adult/nervous_system_disorders/overview_of_nervous_system_disorders_85,p00799
In addition to the brain and spinal cord, principal organs of the nervous system include the following:
• Eyes
• Ears
• Sensory organs of taste
• Sensory organs of smell
• Sensory receptors located in the skin, joints, muscles, and other parts of the body

relationship between depression, the limbic system (or emotional brain) and the prefrontal cortex (the rational brain)

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Trauma

From — ref737f Understanding Brain, Mind and Soul: Contributions from Neurology and Neurosurgery

Injury to, and disease in, the brain often provides crucial insights on the role of its different parts.

Stress is suspect
Scientists studying the developmental roots of mental illness have zeroed in on a likely suspect: the body’s stress response. When the body reacts to stressors, two systems kick into gear. The endocrine system produces stress hormones such as cortisol. And the sympathetic nervous system churns out other stress-related hormones such as epinephrine and norepinephrine—the factors responsible for the heart-pounding, sweaty-palms sensation known as the fight-or-flight response.

Yet stress physiology encompasses much more than just stress hormones, says Thaddeus Pace, PhD, an assistant professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Emory University School of Medicine. Stress also impacts immune function. “A stressful event can have profound effects on the amount of activity that’s going on in the inflammatory immune system,” he says.

Inflammation is a key part of the stress response. It has also been linked to a variety of bodily ills, from diabetes and heart disease to depression and Alzheimer’s disease. “I see inflammation as one of the chief evils in mammalian biology,” Pace says.

Of course, the immune system serves a critical function—and not just for fighting disease. “The immune system is really important for how the brain develops normally,” says Staci Bilbo, PhD, an assistant professor of psychology and neuroscience at Duke University. Cells called microglia are the resident immune cells in the brain. They’re the central nervous system’s first-line defense against infections and other invaders. And, Bilbo says, “they do a lot of important things for building a brain.”
— Ref 715 ref 715 beginnings of mental illness

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The Mind — conscious, subconscious, unconscious

Without an awareness of how humans can develop, we are more inclined to live passively, not consciously, not deliberately, and to feel a greater sense of being a Victim of Life, rather than a creator of what we believe in, value, or desire for our lives — ref 396

How Consciousness Evolved

From — ref 280

The Attention Schema Theory (AST), developed over the past five years (written 2016), may be able to provide an answer. The theory suggests that consciousness arises as a solution to one of the most fundamental problems facing any nervous system: — Too much information constantly flows in to be fully processed

The brain evolved increasingly sophisticated mechanisms for deeply processing a few select signals at the expense of others, and in the AST, consciousness is the ultimate result of that evolutionary sequence.

End — ref 280

From — ref740e the-attention-schema-theory-of-consciousness-deserves-your-attention/

End — ref740e the-attention-schema-theory-of-consciousness-deserves-your-attention/

How much data can the conscious mind deal with?

ref739 understanding-your-conscious-mind/

From — ref738f conscious-subconscious-unconscious-mind-work

How They Work Together
Your conscious mind is what most people associate with who you are, because that is where most people live day to day. But it’s by no means where all the action takes place.

Your conscious mind is a bit like the captain of a ship standing on the bridge giving out orders. In reality it’s the crew in the engine room below deck (the subconscious and the deeper unconscious) that carry out the orders. The captain may be in charge of the ship and give the orders but its the crew that actually guides the ship, all according to what training they had been given over the years to best do so.

The conscious mind communicates to the outside world and the inner self through speech, pictures, writing, physical movement, and thought.
The subconscious mind, on the other hand, is in charge of our recent memories, and is in continuous contact with the resources of the unconscious mind.

The unconscious mind is the storehouse of all memories and past experiences, both those that have been repressed through trauma and those that have simply been consciously forgotten and no longer important to us. It’s from these memories and experiences that our beliefs, habits, and behaviors are formed.

The unconscious constantly communicates with the conscious mind via our subconscious, and is what provides us with the meaning to all our interactions with the world, as filtered through your beliefs and habits. It communicates through feelings, emotions, imagination, sensations, and dreams.

The Mind in Action

The following analogy may help to clarify the concept of how the three minds work a little more.

If you imagine you mind is like a computer:…
• Your conscious mind is best represented by the keyboard and monitor.
• Your subconscious is like the RAM in your computer, memory for flexible working
• Your unconscious is like the hard disk drive in your computer. It is the long term storage place for all your memories and programs that have been installed since birth.

Your unconscious mind (and ultimately your subconscious mind) then uses these programs to make sense of all the data you receive from the world and to keep you safe and ensure your survival.

The logic of these two minds is that if it worked in the past and you survived, then it will help you get through similar situations by the same means, no matter how misguided, painful, and unhelpful the results may be to you personally in the outside world.
The Conscious Mind

If you ask most people to define what the conscious mind does you’ll get varying answers. Some say what distinguishes it from the subconscious (or even the unconscious) is awareness.

But to say the subconscious is unaware is plain wrong. It has been well documented that you can be influenced by your surroundings or what people say even when your conscious mind is totally out of it, such as when you’re under anesthetic or asleep.

And what about when you drive to some destination but when you get there you have no memory of the trip. In those situations it’s your subconscious that stays aware and performs the necessary functions.

Another argument people put forth is that the conscious mind is where you do all your thinking and logical reasoning. But that too doesn’t entirely distinguish it from your subconscious or unconscious. Your unconscious minds are the storage place of all your memories, emotions and habits and are in fact very good at reasoning and logic.

Take, for example, when you were a baby. Your conscious mind had not yet developed enough to test and measure all the information from your environment, so at this age it sits in the background and it’s your subconscious and unconscious that does all the data gathering and reasoning – identifying that the bottle or nipple is a source of food, that crying gets you attention, that cuddles from mum means you are safe. In this stage it’s your other two minds hard at work forming logical patterns of association (habits, beliefs, and emotions) that help you to survive.

By far the best explanation that I have found for the two most powerful functions your fully developed conscious mind can do that the other two can’t is …
1. Its ability to direct your focus
2. Its ability to imagine that which is not real
It’s these two very important abilities that can change your life.

Directing Your Focus

While your subconscious mind has a much stronger sense of awareness of your surroundings than your conscious mind (some suggest it’s where your “sixth sense” comes from) and is always switched on, even when asleep, it really does just obey orders from your conscious mind.
If all you do is focus your conscious thoughts continually on negative things, then your subconscious will obediently deliver the feelings, emotions, and memories that you have associated with that type of thinking. And because those feelings will become your reality, you can then be caught up in a never ending loop of negativity, fear, and anxiety, constantly looking for the bad in every situation.

Take, for example, when you are laying in bed late at night and hear something go “bump” in the night. If you let your thoughts and imagination wander to all the horrible things that might happen, then your subconscious will throw up the feelings, emotions, and memories of past events that you’ve associated with those thoughts. Its your subconscious’s way of protecting you and preparing you for fight or flight in those situations.

On the other hand, if you consciously tell yourself and direct your focus to more rational, calming thoughts, then the feelings will subside or disappear.

Some people find it quite easy and natural to direct their thoughts towards a more positive outlook on life and every situation. It really depends on the type of programming your subconscious and unconscious has had since birth. For example – do you sway towards pessimism or optimism, negative thinking or positive thinking, happiness or anger, or somewhere in between? Identifying which way you sway is the start to improving it.

This ability of your conscious mind to direct your attention and awareness is one of the most important powers you have, and to create change in your life you must learn to control what you consciously focus on.

But how do you do that? The actual skill of directing your focus is quite simple … all it comes down to is making a choice. Deciding how you will think and what thoughts you will allow into your mind will determine your destiny. It can literally be used for good or evil, for constructive or destructive means.

Our mental thoughts are probably the only one true freedom we have in this world that we can actually control. A man can be physically trapped in prison in absolute inhumane conditions and yet still be free in his own mind – Victor Frankl and Nelson Mandela (among many others) are testament to that fact. We alone can choose how we are going to respond to our experiences in life.

Using Your Imagination

The other important ability of the conscious mind is the use of visualization. Your mind can literally imagine something that is totally new and unique – something you’ve never physically experienced before. By contrast, your subconscious can only offer versions of what memories it has stored of your past experiences.

But the really neat trick is that the subconscious can’t distinguish between that which the conscious mind imagines and that which is real, so whatever is brought up by conscious imagination and intently focused on, also brings up all the emotions and feelings that are associated with that image in your mind for you to experience.

For example, if you’ve ever day dreamed before about winning lotto, or perhaps looked forward to being with that someone special you love, then you would have felt the joy that those thoughts had conjured up in your head, even though you knew intellectually it wasn’t physically happening at that very moment. But your subconscious thought it was happening to you, and that’s why it offered those feelings and emotions it associated with those thoughts. It truly is a marvelous gift we have!

Visualization can be used to create some amazing results. In one sporting study three groups of people were tested on their ability to improve their free throw accuracy in basketball. They were tested at the start of the experiment and at the end.

One group was instructed to physically practice free throws for 20 days in a row. The second group was not allowed to train at all. The third group spent 20 minutes a day getting into a relaxed state and only imagining themselves performing the free throws. They were also taught that if they missed in their minds, to adjust slightly and see themselves getting it the next time.

At the end of the experiment the results were incredible. The group that physically practiced each day improved their score by 24%. The second group who didn’t practice understandably didn’t improve at all. But the third group, who had only visualized doing it, actually improved their score by an amazing 23% – nearly as much as group one! Don’t under estimate the power of the conscious mind.

The Subconscious Mind

Your subconscious is the work desk of your mind. Controlling and directing it is the key to personal change.

As I said earlier, your subconscious is a bit like the RAM in your computer. (For those who don’t know – RAM is the term used for the short term memory in a computer, and its job is to hold the programs and data that are currently in use so they can be reached quickly and easily by the computer processor. It’s a lot faster than the other types of memory, such as the hard disk or CD-ROM.)
Your subconscious works in a similar way to computer RAM. It holds short term memory and current daily used programs.

The Role of the Subconscious

Apart from short term memory, the subconscious also plays an important role in our day to day functioning.

It works hard at ensuring you have everything you need for quick recall and access to when you need it. Things like –
• Memories – such as what your telephone number is, how to drive a car without having to consciously think about it, what you need to get from the shop on the way home etc.
• Current programs you run daily, such as behaviors, habits, mood
• Filters (such as beliefs and values) to run information through to test their validity according to your perception of the world
• Sensations taken in via your 5 senses and what it means to you

If it doesn’t happen to have a filter or reference point in its RAM for some bits of information that come in, then it has a direct line to the storage place of the mind – the unconscious. It will ask the unconscious to pull out the programs that it best associates with the incoming data to help make sense of it all.

The subconscious is also constantly at work, staying a lot more aware of your surroundings than you realize. In fact, according to the NLP communication model we are assaulted with over 2 million bits if data every second. If your conscious mind had to deal with all that you would very quickly become overwhelmed and not be able to get anything done.

Instead, your subconscious filters out all the unnecessary information and delivers only that which is needed at the time, around 7 chunks of information. It does all this behind the scenes so you can perform your daily work uninhibited. And it does this as logically as it can, based on the programs it has access to in your unconscious.

And as discussed earlier in the article, it then communicates all the results into consciousness via emotions, feelings, sensations and reflexes, images and dreams. It doesn’t communicate in words.

The link into the Subconscious

One of the truly great things about the subconscious (and one which we need to take advantage of to affect change) is — it obeys orders!
People often erroneously think that the subconscious is in charge and you are merely at its mercy. In fact it’s the complete opposite. Your conscious mind gives it the direction, the environment if you like, for which it operates in. The subconscious will only deliver the emotions and feelings of what you continuously think about.

Now I’m not saying it’s as easy as changing what you think of in one moment and your entire life will be changed. In most cases your default programs have too much energy attached to them to change instantaneously. It can be done though – such as after a massive life altering event or if enough pain is associated with the old behavior – but without a major shift like that it is likely the old programs will re-emerge.

The Unconscious Mind

The unconscious mind is very similar to the subconscious mind in that it also deals with memories. But there is a difference between the two.
If you remember the symbol of the triangle I used to describe the levels of the human mind, then you’ll remember that the unconscious sits a layer deeper in the mind under the subconscious. Although the subconscious and unconscious have direct links to each other and deal with similar things, the unconscious mind is really the cellar, the underground library if you like, of all your memories, habits, and behaviors. It is the storehouse of all your deep seated emotions that have been programmed since birth.

If you want significant change at a core level, then this is the place to work on … but it’s not easy to get to!
Unconscious versus Subconscious – What’s the difference?

There’s been plenty of debate over what is the correct term – subconscious or unconscious.

Unconscious is the term usually preferred by Psychologists and Psychiatrists to refer to the thoughts we have that are “out of reach” of our consciousness. It shouldn’t be confused with the medical term for unconscious, which basically means knocked out or anesthetized, although both definitions do have similar qualities.

In simple terms, the unconscious is the storage place for all our memories that have been repressed or which we don’t wish to recall. A traumatic event in our childhood that has been blocked out is an example, but it doesn’t have to be so serious as this. It could be something very distant like what you had for lunch on your first day of school or what the name was of the childhood friend you played with a couple of times.

It’s a memory that we can’t pull out at our choosing. It’s there, but we can’t remember it no matter how hard we try. Certain psychoanalytical methods can bring back these memories (such as hypnosis) or it can be triggered by a particular event (a scent, a familiar place etc).

The important point to remember here, is that we cannot, by choice, remember anything in our unconscious without some special event or technique. This is the unconscious.

The subconscious, on the other hand, is almost the same, but the major difference is we can choose to remember. The memories are closer to the surface and more easily accessible with a little focus.

For example, if I were to ask you to remember what your phone number is, then you could easily bring that into conscious thought. The interesting thing is that before I asked you to recall it, you had no conscious thought of it at all. It was stored in your subconscious available for ready recall when needed, a bit like RAM in a computer because it’s something that you require quite regularly to remember.
If, however, it wasn’t important to you to recall your phone number that often then it may be stored a bit deeper, and as a result when you’re asked for your phone number on the spot you might struggle to remember it.

The Role of the Unconscious
In many respects the unconscious deals with all the same tasks as the subconscious – memory, habits, feelings, emotions, and behaviors. The difference between the two minds, however, is that the unconscious is the source of all these programs that your subconscious uses
It is the place where all your memories and experiences since birth have been stored. Its from these memories that your beliefs, habits, and behaviors are formed and reinforced over time.

How to Change Your Life

If you want to affect change in your life at a core level then you will have to work on your programs that are held in the unconscious mind. There are specialized ways to make that happen, and if you’ve read the entire series of these articles then you’ll know that the place to start doing that is in the conscious mind.

By continuously being in charge of your own thoughts through directing your focus and using visualization, you can influence what programs the subconscious mind constantly runs. Do this often enough (and with enough emotional energy) then it will start to reprogram your unconscious internal representation and belief system.

And when that happens you’ll experience change on a very deep level!

It’s very much a top down approach. After all, it’s how your habits, behaviors and beliefs were created in the first place. Give it a try and see how it works for you. And remember, enjoy the journey!

Credits: ** This was originally featured on: www.mindset-habits.com

End — ref738f conscious-subconscious-unconscious-mind-work

From — ref738e includes pre-conscious

The preconscious contains thoughts and feelings that a person is not currently aware of, but which can easily be brought to consciousness (1924). It exists just below the level of consciousness, before the unconscious mind. The preconscious is like a mental waiting room, in which thoughts remain until they ‘succeed in attracting the eye of the conscious’ (Freud, 1924, p. 306).

Critical Evaluation
Initially, psychology was sceptical regarding the idea of mental processes operating at an unconscious level. To other psychologists determined to be scientific in their approach (e.g. behaviorists) the concept of the unconscious mind has proved a source of considerable frustration because it defies objective description, and is extremely difficult to objectively test or measure.

However, the gap between psychology and psychoanalysis has narrowed, and the notion of the unconscious is now an important focus of psychology. For example, cognitive psychology has identified unconscious processes, such as procedural memory (Tulving, 1972), automatic processing (Bargh & Chartrand, 1999; Stroop, 1935), and social psychology has shown the importance of implicit processing (Greenwald & Banaji, 1995). Such empirical findings have demonstrated the role of unconscious processes in human behavior.

However, empirical research in psychology has revealed the limits of the Freudian theory of the unconscious mind, and the modern notion of an ‘adaptive unconscious’ (Wilson, 2004) is not the same as the psychoanalytic one. Indeed, Freud (1915) has underestimated the importance of the unconscious, and in terms of the iceberg analogy there is a much larger portion of the mind under the water. The mind operates most efficiently by relegating a significant degree of high level, sophisticated processing to the unconscious.

Whereas Freud (1915) viewed the unconscious as a single entity, psychology now understands the mind to comprise a collection of modules that has evolved over time and operate outside of consciousness. For example, universal grammar (Chomsky, 1972) is an unconscious language processor that lets us decide whether a sentence is correctly formed. Separate to this module is our ability to recognize faces quickly and efficiently, thus illustrating how unconscious modules operate independently.

Finally, while Freud believed that primitive urges remained unconscious to protect individuals from experiencing anxiety, the modern view of the adaptive unconscious is that most information processing resides outside of consciousness for reasons of efficiency, rather than repression (Wilson, 2004).

End — ref738e includes pre-conscious

From — ref738d Iceberg Metaphor, Imagination, Sentience, Intuition

If you drive, you use over 30 specific skills… without being aware of them. These are skills, not facts; they are processes, requiring intelligence, decision-making and training.

Besides these learned resources which operate below the surface of consciousness there are important natural resources. For instance, the unconscious mind regulates all the systems of the body and keeps them in harmony with each other. It controls heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, the endocrine system and the nervous system, just to name a few of its natural, automatic duties.

The conscious mind, like the part of the iceberg above the surface, is a small portion of the whole being. The conscious mind is what we ordinarily think of when we say ‘my mind.’ It’s associated with thinking, analyzing and making judgments and decisions.The conscious mind is actively sorting and filtering its perceptions because only so much information can reside in consciousness at once. Everything else falls back below the water line, into unconsciousness.

Only seven bits of information, plus or minus two can be held consciously at one time. Everything else we are thinking, feeling or perceiving now… along with all our memories remains unconscious, until called into consciousness or until rising spontaneously.

Imagination
The conscious mind can also use the medium of the imagination to communicate with the unconscious mind. The conscious mind sends suggestions about what it wants through the imagination to the unconscious. It imagines things, and the subconscious intelligences work to make them happen.

The suggestions can be words, feelings or images. Athletes commonly use images to mentally rehearse how they want to perform by picturing themselves successfully completing their competition. A tennis player may see a tennis ball striking the racket at just the right spot, at just the perfect moment in the swing. Studies show that this form of imaging improves performance.

‘Under the Iceberg’ Communication
To carry the iceberg metaphor forward, each of us can be represented as an iceberg, with the larger part of ourselves deeply submerged. And there’s a place in the depths where all of our icebergs come together, a place in the unconscious where we connect with each other.

The psychologist Carl Jung has named this realm the ‘Collective Unconscious.’ This is the area of mind where all humanity shares experience, and from where we draw on the archetypal energies and symbols that are common to us all. ‘Past life’ memories are drawn from this level of the unconscious.

Another, even deeper level can be termed the ‘Universal Unconscious’ where experiences beyond just humanity’s can also be accessed with regression process. It is at this level that many ‘core issues’ begin, and where their healing needs to be accomplished.

The unconscious connection ‘under the iceberg’ between people is often more potent than the conscious level connection, and an important consideration in doing the healing work. Relationship is an area rich with triggers to deeply buried material needing healing. And some parts of us cannot be triggered in any way other than ‘under the iceberg.’

Although the conscious mind, steeped in cognition and thought, is able to deceive another… the unconscious mind, based in feeling, will often give us information from under the iceberg that contradicts what is being communicated consciously.

“Sounds right but feels wrong,” is an example of information from under the iceberg surfacing in the conscious mind, but conflicting with what the conscious mind was able to get on its own. This kind of awareness is also called ‘sentience,’ the realm of ‘intuition.’

Consciousness and Sentience

Sentience is the capacity to feel, perceive or experience subjectively.[1] Eighteenth-century philosophers used the concept to distinguish the ability to think (reason) from the ability to feel (sentience). In modern Western philosophy, sentience is the ability to experience sensations (known in philosophy of mind as “qualia”). In Eastern philosophy, sentience is a metaphysical quality of all things that require respect and care. The concept is central to the philosophy of animal rights because sentience is necessary for the ability to suffer, and thus is held to confer certain rights.

Another way of understanding the iceberg metaphor is to place ‘consciousness’ above the water line, and ‘sentience’ below. The two fundamental kinds of human awareness, consciousness and sentience, are both used in this work.

Conscious awareness brings awareness of thoughts, visions and spiritual realities. Sentience is the feeling sense that conveys awareness of body sensations, intuition and deep emotional realities. Consciousness is associated with light, and at the transpersonal level, Spirit. It is the outgoing, yang, electric, thinking, ‘masculine’ kind of awareness.

Sentience is associated with darkness, and at the transpersonal level, the Mother of Creation. It is the more in-drawing, magnetic, feeling, ‘feminine’ kind of awareness. Both the culture and our own experiences have conditioned us to favor consciousness, and then encouraged us to increase and expand it. On the other hand, our deepest conditioning generally has told us to try to ignore or otherwise deny our sentient awareness whenever it feels ‘bad.’

The healing work involves finding and reclaiming lost parts of ourselves, virtually all of which are feeling parts that have been suffering great pain in their darkness and isolation. This reclaiming work has been difficult to do since our conditioning and nearly every self-help approach and spiritual path has involved used consciousness in ways that have enabled it to rise above or lift out of the pain and despair of the sentient parts still stuck in imprints.

While wholeness has been the stated objective of various therapies and spiritual paths, most have advocated reclaiming only the lost parts of Self that can align with the needs and desires of consciousness. This bias has of course left many parts out in the cold, and wholeness an elusive goal.

This work reverses the age-old tendency of consciousness to dominate sentience. Only sentient awareness can tell us what is needed for the healing of our feeling parts, and consciousness can help the healing work go quickly, easily and painlessly by being there for the feeling parts in loving acceptance.

‘Consciousness in the service of sentience’ is the master key to healing at the deepest levels. And you, the responsible, resourceful, loving, inner Healer is who uses this key. As the work progresses, you learn how to bring love and acceptance to every part of Self, no matter how ‘bad’ it may feel at first.

Intuition
Intuitive information comes without a searching of the conscious memory or a formulation to be filled by imagination. When we access the intuition, we seem to arrive at an insight by a path from unknown sources directly to the conscious awareness. Wham! Out of nowhere, in no time.

No matter what the precise neurological process, the ability to access and use information from the intuition is extremely valuable in the effective and creative use of the tools of self healing. In relating with others, it’s important to realize that your intuition will bring you information about the other and your relationship from under the iceberg.

When your intuition is the source of your words and actions, they are usually much more appropriate and helpful than what thinking or other functions of the conscious mind could muster. What you do and say from the intuition in earnest communication will be meaningful to the other, even though it may not make sense to you.

The quickest and best way to nurture and develop your intuition is to trust all of your intuitive insights. Trust encourages the intuition to be more present. Its information is then more accessible and the conscious mind finds less reason to question, analyze or judge intuitive insights.

The primary skills needed for easy access and trust of intuitive information are:
* The ability to get out of the way.
* The ability to accept the information without judgment.

Two easy ways to access intuition and help the conscious mind get out of the way are:
Focus your attention in your abdominal area and imagine you have a ‘belly brain’. As you feel into and sense this area, ‘listen’ to what your belly brain has to say. This is often referred to as listening to our ‘gut feelings.’
* With your eyes looking down and to your left and slightly defocused, simply feel into what to say next.

Once the intuition is flowing, it will continue easily, unless it is blocked. The most usual blockages are because of the conscious mind’s judgments of the intuitive information. The best way to avoid this is to get the cooperation of the conscious mind so it will step aside and become the observer when intuition is being accessed.

End — ref738d Iceberg Metaphor, Imagination, Sentience, Intuition

From — ref737f Understanding Brain, Mind and Soul: Contributions from Neurology and Neurosurgery

Locke alluded to something called the understanding, which looked at the inscriptions on the white paper and carried out the recognizing, reflecting, and associating.’ He concluded that ‘The mind is a complex system composed of many interacting parts.’

Neurologists and neurosurgeons see patients with injured or diseased brains.

Studies on patients who have suffered brain injury (such as Phineas Gage) have also provided interesting clues on the mind in relationship to the brain. We now know that damaged frontal lobes can no longer exert inhibitory influences on the limbic system with consequent aggressive acts.

A few more examples of specific areas of the brain linked to characteristics attributed to the mind:

• The relation between the amount of grey matter in the frontal lobes and intelligence;
• The inferior parietal lobules and spatial reasoning and intuitions on numbers (as in Albert Einstein) and
• Te third interstitial nucleus in the anterior thalamus and homosexuality (Pinker, 2003)

Paul Broca showed that damage to the area (subsequently named after him) in the dominant cerebrum results in an inability to talk. Subsequent studies showed several other areas within the cerebrum that govern other aspects of speech.

Bilateral frontal lobotomy and subsequent more sophisticated variants reduce an aggressive, maniacal individual to docility.

From — ref
ref737d difference-between-conscious-and-vs-subconscious

The difference between Conscious and Subconscious Mind?

• Conscious mind is the part of mind which is fully aware and subconscious mind is a part which is not in complete awareness.
• The information conscious mind hold is easily accessible but to access information stored in the subconscious mind requires a little more effort.
• Conscious mind is related to actions that are controllable and subconscious mind is related to actions more or less “instinctive”.
• Conscious mind is responsible for logic and reasoning but the subconscious mind along with the unconscious mind is responsible for a person’s emotions, characteristics, attitudes, desires etc.

From– ref737e difference-between-conscious-and-vs-unconscious

The Difference Between Conscious and Unconscious?

• Conscious mind is sequential and logical while unconscious mind is spontaneous and processes information instantly.
Unconscious mind is capable of multitasking while conscious mind does not have this ability.
• Unconscious mind can make associations and links between many thoughts and ideas while conscious mind is linear and thinks in terms of cause and effect.
• Unconscious mind knows why while conscious mind seeks why.
• Unconscious minds perceive and feel while conscious mind does intellectual thinking
• While conscious mind works in the waking state, the unconscious mind is associated with dreams, reflection, meditation and sleep.
• Conscious mind has to make effort to move parts of your body while unconscious mind does it involuntarily.

sdded to Brain function & Format
We are able to learn to do things well, continue to sort of understand – then we make a big step forward and realise something new to us. This observation of the power of the sub-conscious to think incisively “in parallel” with your conscious deliberations is crucial — this releases claustrophobia of “periscope awareness”

(Einstein: “Creativity is the residue of time wasted”)

According to William James the renowned American Psychologist Awareness and the SubConscious are as follows:

ccp159a-awareness-1
CCP159a

The interchange between Awareness and Near Consciousness may be where we use our “Short Term Memory” capabilities.

The main characteristic of Mental Illnesses such as Depression and Chronic Anxiety is that they tend to hold our Awareness – damming up the “Stream of Consciousness.


CCP203

Worst still Human Nature encourages the Sub-Conscious to “Support” this condition by supplying more “Bad Feelings” to the Near Consciousness and the Consciousness.

To Top ccc17
Brain Format and Function Functions of parts of the brain

There is no general agreement regarding brain format or functions

From ref719 Triune Brain Learning and 718 ref718 Triune Brain Theory

Dr Paul MacLean of the National Institute of Mental Health, Washington DC suggested that the brain is made up of three distinct areas:
• The Brain Stem – our reptilian brain
• The Limbic System – our emotional brain
• The neocortex – our rational brain

The Brain Stem – our reptilian brain

This is the primitive brain which is only interested in the four aspects:
• sustenance
• shelter
• safety
• sex

Its functions are:
• flight/fight centre
• acts rather than thinks
• we downshift to reptile when under threat, when downshifting occurs, learning cannot
take place

The Limbic System – our emotional brain
•The limbic system is the seat of emotion. Often our most memorable learning experiences
are linked with emotion.
•Has visual memory, but language is limited to screams and expletives.
•”Soft skills” like empathy, understanding, assertion, humour are increasingly recognised as
being important for learning.
Emotional intelligence is gaining more press recently as a critical factor in learning.

The neocortex – our rational brain
• The seat of academic learning.
• The neo-cortex is divided into the right and left brain.
To be receptive to learning, the learning environment must be absent of threats. Otherwise, we downshift to limbic, or if it’s really bad, to reptile!

End From ref718 Triune Brain Theory

There is some positive criticism of the Triune Brain Model at — ref720

A reason for this model’s success is that it seems to provide anatomical foundations for the psychoanalytic concepts of Freud.

According to MacLean, the three parts of the brain communicate poorly with one another; the neocortex dominates (or, as Freud would put it, “represses”) the two others. Moreover, this idea of the brain as being organized into three hierarchical layers, from the oldest to the most recent, also fits neatly into Darwinian theory.

Lastly, there have never really been any other models of the brain that were so simple to understand and so easy to teach.

Over the years since MacLean introduced these concepts, a number of studies have been published that cast doubt on certain aspects of them. The time has come to revisit these concepts and dust them off a bit.

• The association of the limbic system with the emotional brain in MacLean’s model is problematic
• MacLean’s concept of the “reptilian brain” also has its share of problems
• One final problem with the triune-brain model is that it treats the brain as if it were organized along strict hierarchical lines

End — ref720

The Harvard Medical School have offered a simpler model.

From ref723

Their model of the brain is described as a Dog brain with NeoCortex on top

The dog-brain looks after the normal functioning of the body, but when required to deal with emergencies, sexual activity, etc. it temporarily diverts resources in combination with the endocrine system.

It deals with the associated emotions, generating the required motivation

In addition the longer term emotions/Moods are habit-like and they can dominate our characters, in the extreme as Depression, GAD, etc.

Much of the traffic between the primitive and modern parts of our brains is devoted to the conscious calculation of risks and rewards — Researchers have found that patients with injuries to parts of the limbic system also struggle with making decisions.

The brain’s frontal lobes, so critical to decision making, don’t fully mature until after puberty. Until then, the neuronal wiring that connects the prefrontal cortex to the rest of the brain is still under construction.

Meanwhile, the parts of the brain that incite impulsive behavior seem particularly primed in teenagers. For instance, Gregory Berns and colleagues at Emory University found that certain still-developing circuits in adolescents’ brains become hyperactive when the kids experience pleasurable novel stimuli.

An adolescent’s brain is wired to favor immediate and surprising rewards, even when the teen knows full well that pursuing them may be a bad idea.

MUCH MORE
END — ref723 Dog brain with NeoCortex on top

Dr Athena Staik in “The neuroscience of changing toxic thinking or behavior patterns” the Sub-conscious as “how your mind and body work” — See ref707a and ref707b

The most important aspect of our human existence is our awareness — like our fellow mammals our vision is immediate, and unlike dog it is in colour.

With regard to this awareness — Buddhist Scholars envisaged a “Stream of Consciouness”, offering a range of Moods, Emotions, Thoughts to best deal with Our Awarenesses — Ref 636

The very ifluencial American philosopher, William James (brother of the better known writer, Henry James, recognised the importance of this insight — LLL

The Buddhists imagined this awarenessas a “Stream of Consciousness” — parade of images of — Hell, Hunger, Instinct, Anger, Tranquillity, Rapture, Learning, and Realisation, Helping, and Awakening — emerging from successful experience as a fully satifying Life — and maybe more!

They’re all present together, like so many ingredients in a stew. But at any given moment, depending on what you’re thinking or doing, or on what’s going on around you, you’ll experience one of these states on a competing basis — It will leap to the forefront of your consciousness, and overshadow the others, but only for a while. One state changes to another, many times per day.

Each one, other than “Awakening”, can have positive or negative aspects. This is a common feature in many models/conceptions – the best known of these being the Yin,Yang of Chinese Philosophy. Yin and Yang can be thought of as complementary (rather than opposing) forces.

Hell: Whenever something terrible or even disagreeable happens, you get upset or distraught. It is manifest in depression, anxiety, fear and other dis-ease. It’s the worst state to inhabit, beyond reason and passion alike. This mood has given rise to a sort of creativity.


Fig 46

Craving: This refers to craving, obsession, addiction. However the desire to do things is an important driving force for most people – and is a sore loss during depression. Motivation is a complex aspect of this mood (and other moods).

Instincts: These are given to you by your bodily nature, and are natural, but can become excessive – See the section on Needs.

Anger: people seem constantly enraged; others cranky. Others are argumentative or hypercritical, arrogant or sadistic. Anger can provide motivation to deal with unfairness, etc.

Tranquillity: This is a peaceful state in which your mind is un-perturbed, and a relief from anxiety, etc. – achievable through meditation or self-hypnosis.

Rapture: This is a state of sudden happiness, or even ecstasy. It is the most joyous mood, but for that very reason it does not last. Can be induced by exciting events or artificially by alcohol or drugs.

Learning: In this state you are exercising your cognitive skills, flexing your intellectual muscles. Whatever you’re up to, your thinking mind is engaged and in high gear

Realisation: Realisation means discovery, creativity, invention, and connection. It is related to a craving for attainment and occurs during the development of competence. Quite often what you are seeking can occur while you are having a break, or during sleep or sleepless episodes.

Helping: The helping state of mind applies to good parenting, teaching, doctoring and nursing, etc.

This Stram of Consciousness reminds one of the observation of the Harvard Medical School which describes us as having “a dog-brain with a human cortex stuck on top” — and that “not a second goes by that our animal brain isn’t seeking to influence our options” — ref723 Dog brain with NeoCortex on top

The “dog-brain” can respond much faster than the “thinking brain” — its reaction is influenced by circumstances and experiences — typically if a “flight-or-flight” situation is perceived. Our Nature combines the fast reactions of the motivational/emotional “dog-brain” and the human “thinking-brain”.

We are able to learn to do things well, continue to sort of understand – then we make a big step forward and realise something new to us. This observation of the power of the sub-conscious to think incisively “in parallel” with your conscious deliberations is crucial — this releases claustrophobia of “periscope awareness”

(Einstein: “Creativity is the residue of time wasted”)

According to William James the renowned American Psychologist Awareness and the Sub-Conscious are as follows:

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The interchange between Awareness and Near Consciousness may be where we use our “Short Term Memory” capabilities.

The main characteristic of Mental Illnesses such as Depression and Chronic Anxiety is that they tend to hold our Awareness – damming up the “Stream of Consciousness.


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Worst still Human Nature encourages the Sub-Conscious to “Support” this condition by supplying more “Bad Feelings” to the Near Consciousness and the Consciousness.

Brain Function and Format abbreviated notes here

Brain format & Functions

From ref120 Pleasure Decision and desire 2006

Neuroscientists are finding that not a second goes by that our animal brains aren’t conferring with our modern cortexes to influence their choices. Scientists have discovered, for example, that the “reward” circuits in the brain that activate in response to cocaine, chocolate, sex, and music also find pleasure in the mere anticipation of making money–or getting revenge. And the “aversion” circuits that react to the threat of physical pain also respond with disgust when we feel cheated by a partner.

In this article, HBR senior editor Gardiner Morse describes the experiments that illuminate the aggressive participation of our emotion-driven animal brains in decision making. This research also shows that our emotional brains needn’t always operate beneath our radar. While our dog brains sometimes hijack our higher cognitive functions to drive bad, or at least illogical, decisions, they play an important part in rational decision making as well. The more we understand about how we make decisions, the better we can manage them

End ref120 — Emotions moods conditioning and the brain – 2006

From ref126

Mmotions serve adaptive functions. For example, fear allows us to escape dangerous situations, whereas joy or happiness allows us to approach potentially rewarding situations.

Moods can also be adaptive. Anxiety, which has been defined as a mood in which people fear a potentially dangerous situation in the future, has both positive and negative qualities.

On the one hand, anxiety can motivate people to do things to resolve a potentially dangerous situation. For example, if one is anxious for days about an upcoming exam, the anxiety may motivate the person to study more. Depression, also a mood, allows organisms to reserve energy and resources in situations in which activity is fruitless (e.g., famine).

If these moods persist when the potentially dangerous situation has been resolved, however, they have the potential to impair life functioning and decrease quality of life.

Maladaptive moods, or “emotional distress/disturbance,” often persist when people repeatedly think of and believe the same negative scenarios will occur. “I am going to fail this test, it will be awful and terrible. I will be a loser — I will always fail — I will never be good enough…

The fields of psychophysiology and neuroscience can also shed some light on the “mind-blankness” phenomenon. Modern research has revealed intriguing findings pertaining to the differential roles of the cerebral hemispheres:
• The right hemisphere (RH) appears to be predominantly involved in the perception, experience, and expression of negative emotion (e.g., disgust, fear, sadness), whereas
• The left hemisphere (LH) appears to be predominantly involved in the perception, experience, and expression of positive emotion (e.g., happiness).

If the majority of our negative emotions arise initially and predominantly from the RH, which has no or little capability for language (expression or comprehension), then those negative feelings cannot be put into words until they cross over to the LH. Indeed, it has been hypothesized that a condition known as alexithymia, in which individuals have difficulty identifying and describing emotions, is due primarily to deficiencies in the ability of emotion to cross over to the LH (i.e., deficiencies in the corpus callosum, which connects the hemispheres).

Although imperfect retrospective memory and conditioning may be reasons for such statements, it is also plausible that a RH attentional focus provides a potential biological reason for such statements; that is, the individual’s mind actually contained no language-based thoughts at the time because their attention was predominantly focused on the negative mood.

END ref126 Emotions moods conditioning and the brain

134 NOT ACCESSED function-midbrain

From ref 135 — The Chemistry of Relationships: Emotions, the Brain, and the Experience of Love

Conclusion
There is a new era of practice influenced by the study of the brain and how it relates to emotions, bonding, and attachment. Greater attention to exercises and activities that strengthen the chemistry of love, connection, trust, friendship, and sexual desire are needed in the new generation of healthy marriage/relationship education programs.

The Chemistry of Relationships: Emotions, the Brain, and the Experience of Love The focus on positive interventions that enhance the chemistry of love, attraction, and affection will help strengthen programs and services that are already helping many individuals and couples improve their lives and their relationships.

End ref 135 — The Chemistry of Relationships: Emotions, the Brain, and the Experience of Love

169 how-has-human-brain-evolved

170 Limbic system emotions

Humans display the largest web of connections between the prefrontal area and the traditional limbic structures. Perhapas that is why they present, among all species, the greatest variety of feelings and emotions xxx neural link prefrontal to limbic functions and

From ref725 — functions-of-the-prefrontal-cortex.
Primary functions of the prefrontal cortex involve planning a person’s response to complex and difficult problems. The prefrontal cortex resides at the front of the brain, and it is subdivided by the brain’s right and left hemispheres. It acts as an “executive” for the decision making process, weaving past events to present experiences in order to make the best choices. The cortex develops slowly, finally reaching maturity in a person’s early to mid-20s. Medical conditions that affect the prefrontal cortex can have a profound effect on decision making and even personality.

The prefrontal cortex is a large area of the brain that takes up most of the frontal lobes in the right and left hemispheres. Like the rest of the cerebrum, the outer 0.07 to 0.19 inches (2 to 5 millimeters) of brain tissue are gray matter, specialized neurons that can send neural impulses at a much faster rate than the underlying white matter. The complex functions of the prefrontal cortex would be impossible without this large amount of gray matter.

This part of the brain gives human beings much of their intelligence and problem solving ability. The prefrontal cortex has the ability to process both the current environment and past memories. This ability likely helped early humans by allowing them to apply memories to new situations.

What was once an evolutionary advantage for survival still plays a role in 21st century human development.
prefrontal cortex functions — Primary functions of the prefrontal cortex involve planning a person’s response to complex and difficult problems. The prefrontal cortex resides at the front of the brain, and it is subdivided by the brain’s right and left hemispheres.

174 Autonomic and emotion – Levenson

Ref175 Articles on the Mind

Ref176 Penrose Perceptions

From — ref 177 Dopamine love lust sex addiction gambling motivation reward

Dopamine is one of the chemical signals that pass information from one neuron to the next in the tiny spaces between them. When it is released from the first neuron, it floats into the space (the synapse) between the two neurons, and it bumps against receptors for it on the other side that then send a signal down the receiving neuron.

That sounds very simple, but when you scale it up from a single pair of neurons to the vast networks in your brain, it quickly becomes complex. The effects of dopamine release depend on where it’s coming from, where the receiving neurons are going and what type of neurons they are, what receptors are binding the dopamine (there are five known types), and what role both the releasing and receiving neurons are playing.

Ref178 Dopamine xxx</

ref 659 neurology seizures epilepsy psychosomatic

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Enteric System

ref 673 enteric-nervous-system-second-brain

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A Range of Senses

We are made Aware of the World through a range of Senses competing with our current Mood – Earlier we use to refer to our five senses – Sight, Hearing, Taste, Smell & Touch. We now recognise a fuller list (21 items in a recent count): Thirst, Hunger, Ability to sense heat and cold, Pain, Balance, etc.

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Epigenetics

However, the study of Epigenetics (the Science of Change) now indicates that the genetic instructions are altered by our experiences — ref 505 & ref 697

Already epigenetics is offering explanations to how our diets, our exposure to toxins, our stress levels at work – even one-off traumatic events – might be subtly altering the genetic legacy we pass on to our children and grandchildren. It’s opened up new avenues into explaining and curing illnesses that genes alone can’t explain, ranging from autism to cancer.

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Empathy

The good enough mother:

The phrase ” the good enough mother” was coined by the British pediatrician and psychoanalyst D. W. Winnicott in his famous book Playing and Reality — ref 703 what-is-good-enough-mother

Winnicott’s notion of the good enough mother connects the mothering process to the child’s cognitive development and the development of a healthy concept of external reality.

Being a “good enough mother” is fairly complex. It involves a balancing act between two equally important processes for a child’s healthy cognitive development and even his future happiness:
1) At first, the mother or caretaker must devotedly attend to the infant’s every need;
2) The mother must gradually allow the baby to experience a need apart from its immediate fulfillment–although naturally this time period must be very short at first and increase with time.

As time goes by, however, the mother allows the infant to experience small amounts of frustration. She is empathetic and caring, but does not immediately rush to the baby’s every cry. Of course, at first the time-limit to this frustration must be very short. She may allow the baby to cry for a few minutes before her nighttime feeding, but only for a few minutes. She is not “perfect” but she is “good enough” in that the child only feels a slight amount of frustration.

Attachment theory, the good-enough mother, womanhood and the social care of children and young people : brief, disparate and critical reflections —
ref 704 attachment-theory-the-good-enough-mother-womanhood-and-the-social-care-of-children-and-young-people-brief-disparate-and-critical-reflections/

During the 1950s and 1960s working independently but contemporaneously John Bowlby and Donald Winnicott developed different theories about the psychological and physical growth and wellbeing of children. Bowlby’s theory of attachment and Winnicott’s notion of the good-enough mother and the facilitating environment remain influential in the study of child development.

ref 704 again

Winnicott suggests that during pregnancy a mother develops “a state of heightened sensivity” which continues to be maintained for some weeks after the baby’s birth.

When this heightened state passes, the mother has what Winnicott calls a “flight into sanity” and she begins to be aware of the world which exists outside of her state of “primary maternal preoccupation” with her infant (Winnicott,1975).

Nonetheless the good-enough mother continues to provide an environment which facilitates healthy maturational processes in her baby. She achieves this by being the person who wards off the unpredictable and who actively provides care in the holding, handling and in the general management of the child. The good-enough mother provides physical care and meets her baby’s need for emotional warmth and love. She also protects her baby against those parts of her from which murderous feelings are brought forth when, for example, her baby screams, yells and cries continuously. By containing her own hateful feelings about her baby, and using them to intuit the baby’s terror and hate, the good-enough mother facilitates her baby’s feelings and expressions of omnipotence by adapting to his needs until such time as he gradually begins to feel safe enough to relinquish these feelings. At this stage the process of integration can start and the baby begins to develop a sense of “me” and “not me” (Winnicott, 1975).

To achieve this shift from the baby’s total dependence to relative dependence the good-enough mother has, by a gradual process, to fail to adapt to her baby’s needs in order that the baby can begin to learn to tolerate the frustrations of the world outside of himself and his mother (Winnicott,1965).

ref 704 again

Criticisms of Winnicott’s good-enough mother

With his notion of the “good-enough mother” who intuitively knows best about her baby, Winnicott intended to take the pressure off women who became mothers but critics have argued that Winnicott in his idealisation of the good-enough mother has placed an expectation upon the “real” mother that she must shoulder most of the responsibility for the care her baby. Furthermore she is held responsible for how well the baby flourishes.

704 again

In recent times a number of female writers have borne witness to this responsibility. For instance the novelist and mother, Rachel Cusk, at the same time as encapsulating many of Winnicott’s ideas about motherhood, observes,

“Becoming a mother reveals a woman’s capacity for numerous things : virtue, self-sacrifice, anger, foolishness, love. Some of these qualities will never before have been tested – she may not even have known that she possessed them. Some of them will take their shape exactly from what she was offered by her own mother, though she may not remember being offered them. And some – anger is one – will find forms of their own, of which she feels herself the only progenitor” (Cusk,2011, p36).

705 ref 705 good enough mother Huffington

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Motivation

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Insecure and secure tpes and their consciences

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Gender Issue

Take Gender — Ref 643:
To Quote: “The idea of a unified ‘masculine’ or ‘feminine’ personality turns out not to describe real people — It describes stereotypes to which we constantly compare ourselves and each other, but more people are ‘gender non-conforming’ than we generally realize.”
Environmental influences such as prenatal or early-life stress can feed back into this process, again altering how the brain develops.
And — Ref 646 –Gender begins with the assignment of our sex – However, a person’s gender is the complex interrelationship between three dimensions:
• Body: our body, our experience of our own body, how society genders bodies, and how others interact with us based on our body.
• Identity: our deeply held, internal sense of self as male, female, a blend of both, or neither; who we internally know ourselves to be.
• Expression: how we present our gender in the world and how society, culture, community, and family perceive, interact with, and try to shape our gender.
Gender expression is also related to gender roles and how society uses those roles to try to enforce conformity to current gender norms.
• Expression: how we present our gender in the world and how society, culture, community, and family perceive, interact with, and try to shape our gender.
Each of these dimensions can vary greatly across a range of possibilities. A person’s comfort in their gender is related to the degree to which these three dimensions feel in harmony!
Take Gender and Sexual Orientation: Gender and sexual orientation are two distinct aspects of our identity. Gender is personal (how we see ourselves), while sexual orientation is interpersonal (who we are physically, emotionally and/or romantically attracted to) — Ref 646

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This circuit (VTA) is a key detector of a rewarding stimulus. Under normal conditions, the circuit controls an individual’s responses to natural rewards, such as food, sex, and social interactions, and is therefore an important determinant of motivation and incentive drive.

In simplistic terms, activation of the pathway tells the individual to repeat what it just did to get that reward. It also tells the memory centers in the brain to pay particular attention to all features of that rewarding experience, so it can be repeated in the future.

The VTA-NAc pathway is part of a series of parallel, integrated circuits, which involve several other key brain regions.

The VTA is the site of dopaminergic neurons, which tell the organism whether an environmental stimulus (natural reward, drug of abuse, stress) is rewarding or aversive.

The NAc, also called ventral striatum, is a principle target of VTA dopamine neurons. This region mediates the rewarding effects of natural rewards and drugs of abuse.

The amygdala is particularly important for conditioned forms of learning. It helps an organism establish associations between environmental cues and whether or not that particular experience was rewarding or aversive, for example, remembering what accompanied finding food or fleeing a predator. It also interacts with the VTA-NAc pathway to determine the rewarding or aversive value of an environmental stimulus (natural reward, drug of abuse, stress).

The MedicalNewsToday Websit considers Habit and Addiction — Ref204

A habit may eventually develop into an addiction — Many of us can use substances or become engaged in activities without any significant problems. Some people, however, may experience damaging psychological and/or physical effects when their habit becomes an addiction.

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Tribalismstrong>

From — ref743 Tribalism Huffington
Tribalism reflects strong ethnic or cultural identities that separate members of one group from another, making them loyal to people like them and suspicious of outsiders, which undermines efforts to forge common cause across groups. Visible differences make profiling even easier.

Tribalism is muted by other human creations, such as diverse communities with complex structures and more universalistic values. We call that civilization.

From — 744 ref744 biologist-eo-wilson-why-humans-ants-need-tribe-64005

The tendency to form groups, and then to favor in-group members, has the earmarks of instinct. That may not be intuitive: some could argue that in-group bias is conditioned, not instinctual, that we affiliate with family members and play with neighboring children because we’re taught to. But the ease with which we fall into those affiliations points to the likelihood that we are already inclined that way — what psychologists call “prepared learning,” the inborn propensity to learn something swiftly and decisively.

End — 744 ref744 biologist-eo-wilson-why-humans-ants-need-tribe-64005

End — ref743 Tribalism Huffington

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Cells

From — 745 ref445 The 2 types of cells

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End — 745 ref745 The 2 types of cells

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The Mature Adultstrong>

The Mature (Secure) Adult is described the Psychologist Oliver James, as follows:

If you are this type it is relatively easy for you to become emotionally close to others. You are comfortable depending upon others and being depended upon by them, and don’t worry greatly about being alone or having others not accept us.

Adult romantic partners tend to be secure. When set a problem to solve with their partner, secure men are positive and supportive, trying to help rather than acting as a competitor or getting annoyed. Secure women are likely to seek emotional support from their man and to be happy to receive embraces or other physical expressions of affection and encouragement.

Secure couples have the least negative relationships of any combination of patterns – less critical, less conflict-ridden, more warm and friendly. The most common causes of rancour, like the man not spending enough time with the woman or disputes over the division of domestic labour, are less likely to be a problem. Followed over time, their relationships last longer and, if they include marriage, are less likely to end in divorce.

Such a paragon is the result of a Secure Attachment to fellow beings, with no Personality Disorder (not “socialised” in early months) and a Benign Conscience (not”socialised” in the years 3 to 6).

About 50% of Adults in Civilised Societies are “Secure” — the rest are criminals, comedians and politicians — even Prime Ministers

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